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This Handbook contains, in form convenient for 
everyday use, a comprehensive digest of tl:e knowledge 
of harness making, scattered over more than twenty 
thousand columns of Woek — one of the v.eekly 
journals it is my fortune to edit— and supplies concise 
information on the details of the subjects of "which 
it treats. 

In preparing for publication in book form the mass 
of relevant matter contained in the volumes of Work, 
much had to be arranged anew. However, it may be 
stated that the greater part of the contents of this 
Handbook consists substantially of matter contributed 
by a working harness maker. 

Readers who may desire additional information 
respecting special details of the matters dealt with in 
this Handbook, or instructions on kindred subjects, 
should address a question to Work, so that it may 
be answered in the columns of that journal. 


La Be le Salvage, London, 
May, 190i. 



I. — Harness -makers' Tools . 
I[. — Harness-makers' Materials . 
I [I.— Strap Making and Stitching 

IV. — Looping 

Y. — Cart Harness 
Vr.— Cart Collars . . , . 
YIT.— Cart Saddles, Reins, etc. 
YIII.— Fore Gear and Leader Harness 
IX. — Plough Harness . 
X.— Bits, Spurs, Stirrups, and Harness Furniture 111 

XL— Yan and Cab Harness 1-" 

Index 1^" 







. 75 

. 86 

. 101 

. 107 



1.— Paring Knife . . .10 
2.— Hand Knife ... 10 
3.— Kound Knife . . .11 
4.— Head Knife . . .11 
5. — Cutting Gauge . . .11 
6. — Plough or Plough Gauge 12 
7.— Side Elevation of 

Plough Gauge . . 12 

8.— End Elevation of Plough 

Gauge . . . .13 
9.— Slitting Machine . . 13 
10. — Spokeshave . . .13 
11. — Edge Trimmer . . 14 

12.— Washer Cutter . . 14 

13. — Round Punch . . 15 

14.— Oval Punch ... 15 
15. — Buckle Tongue, or Crew, 

Punch . . . .15 
16.— Girth Chape Punch . 15 
17.— Brace End Punch . lb 
18. — Forepart of Brace Enl '• 
Punch . . . . 16 I 
19.— Hand Punch ... 16 
20.— Hand Punch Nipple . 16 
21 to 24. — Scalloping Irons . 16 
25, 26.— Rolette Punches . 17 
27.— Lead Piece ... 17 
28.— Wooden Mallet ' . .17 
29, 30.— Useful Wooden Mal- 
lets 17 

31. — Saddlers' Hammer . . 18 
32. — Pricking-iron . . .18 
33, 34.— Wheel Prickers . . 18 
35. — Screw-race . . .19 

36.— Single Crease ... 19 
37.— Screw-crease . . .19 
38.— Checker . . . .20 
39.— Beveller .... 20 
40.— Compasses ... 20 

41. — Race Compasses . . 20 
42, 43.— Awl Blades . . 21 

44.— Sewing Awl . . .22 
45.— Bent Awl .... 22 
46, 47. — Harness Needles . 25 
48, 49.— Seat Awls ... 23 
50, 51.— Hand-irons or Palm- 
irons . . . .24 
52.— Clamp or Clams . . 24 
53. — Clamp for Sewing Shaft- 
tugs . . . .25 




-Home - made Clamp 

Holding Work . 



-Jaws of Clamp 



-Nail-claw .... 



-Cutting Pliers . 



-Iron Collar Rod 



-Steel Seat-iron 






-Rubber .... 



-Straining Fork 



-Cutting up Hide . 



-Plain Waist Belt . 



-Fancy Waist Belt . 



— Waist Belt with 

Pockets .... 



-Box Creased Loop . 



-Box Creased Loop . 



70.— Box Creased Lccps 



—Horse in Cart Gear 


72 to 75.— Scotch Brass Gear 




77.— Brass Face-pieces . 



—Brass Face-piece . 



—Bells and Brush . 



81.— Brass Hame Plates . 



—Brass Oval 


82 to 85.— Brass Octagons . 



—Brass Heart . 



88.— Brass Stars 



90.— Brass Hame Knobs. 



92.— Brass Swing 






—Corner-piece . 



—Cart Collar without 




—Cart Collar Lining 



—Cart Collar Side-piece . 



—Cart Saddle Tree . 



—Cart Saddle Panel 



—Cart Saddle Hind 

Housing . . . . 



—Cart Saddle Front 

Housing . . . . 



—Set of Leader Gear 



104.— Hip-strap Chains . 



— Plough Back-band 

Hook . . . . 


106 to 108.— Pelham Bits 



— Hackney Bit . 



— Bridoon . . . . 



Ha R NESS Ma king 

















112.— Ladies' Horse Bits. 112 
— Pelliam Snaffle with 
Indiarubber Moutli . 
■Hacliney Bit witli 
Indiarubber Mouth . 
Gig Snaffle 
Wilson Snaffle 
-Liverpool Bit 
—Globe Checlc Curb Bit . 
— One-liorn Bridoon Bit . 
—One-horned Bridoon 
witli Indiarubber 

Moutli .... 
—Gig Curb Bit . 
— Buxton Bit 
—Swivelled Bridoon Bit . 
125.— Breaking Bits . 
— Breaking Bit . 
—Snaffle with India- 
rubber Moutli 
129. — Exercising Bits 
— Sliow or Stallion Bit . 
— Uouble-mouthed Snaffle 
— Ordinary Spur 
— Officer's Regulation 
Spur .... 
— Dress Spur 
— Lady's Spur . 
— Trousers Spur 
-Solid Stirrup . 
— Open Button Stirrup . 
— Waving Ear Stirrup 
—Lady's Stirrup 
—Stirrup Slipper 
—Safety Stirrup 
—Flat Side Wire Front 
Buckle .... 
—Front Bevelled Buckle 
—Bevelled Flat Top 
Buckle .... 
West End Bevelled Flat 

Top Buckle . . .118 
Spade Buckle . . 119 

■Square Wire Buckle . 119 
Chatham Buckle . . 119 












150.— Flat Top Turned-up 

Buckle . . . .119 
151.— Fluted Buckle . . 119 
152.— Swelled Front Bent-leg 

Buckle .... 119 
153.— Flat Top Cab Buckle .* 119 
154.— West End Whole 

Buckle . . . .119 
155.— Chased Buckle . . 120 
156.— Melbourne Buckle . 120 
157.— Square Buckle . . 120 
158, 159.— Covered Buckles . 120 
160, 161. — Part - covered 

Buckles . . . .120 
162.— Shaft Tug Buckle . . 121 
165.— Burgess's Buckle . . 121 
164.— Ball Terret . . .121 
165.— Plain Terret . . .121 
166 to 168.— Ball Terrets . . 122 
169 to 172.— Haines . . 123 
173, 174. — Bearing-rein Swi- 
vels 123 

175, 176.— Roller Buckles . 124 
177.— Hame Clip . . .125 
178, 179.— Breeching Dees . 125 
180, 181.— Winkers . . .129 
132.— Van Saddle . . .131 
135.— Van Saddle Flap . . 131 
134.— Van Saddle Panel . . 131 
185.— Chain and Leather Gig 

Front . . . .140 
186. — Chain and Leather Gig 

Front . . .141 

187.— Chain and Leather Gig 

Front . . . .143 
183.— Crupper Dock . . 147 
189.— Breeching, etc. . . 147 
193.— Back-band . . .147 
191.— Shaft Tugs . . .147 
192.— Four-wheeled Cab Sad- 
dle 153 

193.— Cab Saddle Tree . . 153 
194.— Hansom Cab Saddle . 154 
185, 196.— Rein Stops . . 154 
197. — Hansom Cab Harness . 155 




Harness making and repairing is a branch of 
leather work that can often be undertaken profit- 
ably by many persons, and the information given in 
the following pages has been adapted specially to 
the amateur's requirements. Doubtless the readers 
of a companion handbook on " Boot Making and 
Mending'' have wished to pursue further the sub- 
ject of leather working, and will take up the making 
and repairing of harness with pleasure. Aspirants 
to more highly skilled work will find " Practical 
Saddlery " of the greatest possible use to them, 
whilst readers less ambitious may look to '' Leather 
Working " for instructions on making a number of 
articles, such as bags, portmanteaus, and cases, for 
which there is general employment and a conse- 
quently great demand. The two books just men- 
tioned are issued uniform in style and price with 
the present work. 

In this handbook it is proposed to treat the sub- 
ject of harness making so fully that anyone possess- 
ing tact and sense can make a set of harness from 
the instructions given, or, at any rate, keep harness 
in good repair. A start w411 be made by describing 
the tools that will be necessary. In the list given 
below% every essential tool is specified and its uses 
explained. The tools are very numerous, but the 
amateur may dispense with many of them ; for 
though all of them may have to be employed by a 

10 Harness Making. 

tradesman in turning out finished work, an amateur 
may be content with a much smaller outfit. The 
tools are not bulky, however, and all that are neces- 
sary for making a double set of harness could be 
carried in a small handbag, excepting, of course, 
the mallet and collar-iron. 


Fig-. 1. — Parinjif Knife 


The tools are here classified as («) cutting tools, 
(6) punches and tools of percussion, {c) tools for set- 
ting out, marking, and ornamenting, ((/) awls and 
needles for perforating, (c^) tools for gripping and 
holding work, (/") tools used in stuffing collars 
and saddles, and (7) miscellaneous. It may be re- 
marked that saddlers' tools, as well as harness- 
makers', are included in this chapter. 

With regard to cutting tools, a paring knife (Fig. 
1) and a hand knife (Fig. 2) are used for cutting 
thread, paring down, and splicing, and are other- 
wise generally useful. The round knife (Fig. 3) is 
used by saddlers instead of the hand knife for cut- 
ting, splicing, and thinning leather ; they can be had 
in different sizes, suited to light and heavy work ; 
their chief use is in thinning the edges of leather. 

Fi^. 2.— Hand Knife. 

and for giving a rounded appearance to lined straps, 
such as nosebands, traces, breeching straps, etc. 
The head knife (Fig. 4) is used for cutting the holes 
for buckle tongues and cutting any circular shapes 
or holes in leather. 
Fig. 5 is a cutting gauge made in iron or wood. A 

Harness-makers^ Tools. 

1 1 

knife passes through the ruled stem, and is held 
firmly by a screw. It is adjusted by shifting the 
block, which is also held by a screw. 

A plough or plough gauge (Fig. 6) is very useful 
when much strap or belt cutting has to be done. By 





Round Knife. 

Fig. 4. He 

Fij. 3. 

means of it, straps can be cut from | in. to 4 in. 
wide, by sliding the knife backw^ards or forwards 
along the marked gauge. Straps can be cut much 
more quickly by this machine than by hand, and it 
quite dispenses v/ith the use of the round knife and 
compasses. A slightly different plough is illus- 
trated by Figs. 7 and 8. 


5. — Cutting- Gaui'-e. 

The slitting machine (Fig. 9) is useful for thinning 
straps which are to be drawn down to half or one- 
third their thickness. A saddler's spokeshave (Fig. 
10) may be used for the same purpose as the slitting 


Ha K NESS Making. 

machine. It is suitable for thinning light straps, 
and not only takes less time to adjust, but does the 
work more quickly than the slitter. The chief use 

Fig. G. — Ploiij^-h, or Ploug-h Gauge. 

of the spokeshave, however, is to trim and finish 
traces, backhands, etc. After a trace or backhand 
or other lined strap is stitched, the uneven edges 
require to be rounded and smoothed ; this is done 
by clamping the strap between the knees, holding 

Fig. 7. — SMe Elevation of Plough Gauge. 

the clamp a little straighter than when stitching, 
and using the spokeshave. 

Edge trimmers (Fig, 11) are for running along the 

Harness-makers^ Tools. 


edges of straps of all kinds to take off the sharp edge 
and sides before dyeing. It is made in sizes 1 to 8. 

Fig. 8.— End Elevation of Plough Gauge. 

Sharp and strong scissors are necessary for cutting 
linings, basil, and other kinds of thin leather. The 

Fig. 9. — Slitting Machine. 

washer cutter (Fig. 12) is used for cutting round 
pieces of leather by rule ; the knife can be set at 
all sizes up to 6 in. 

Fig. 10. — Spokeshave 

Punches are indispensable, and half a dozen dif- 
ferent sizes each of round (Fig. 13) and oval (Fig. 


Harness Making. 

14) tools should be obtained. Round punches are 
made in sizes from No. 1, suitable only for very 
narrow straps, to No. 16, which make a hole | in. in 
diameter. Oval punches are numbered, according 

-tig. 11. — Edge Trimmer. 

to size, from 17 to 32, and make a hole of similar 
dimensions to the round punches just mentioned. 
Punches of intermediate sizes, Nos. 3 to 13 or Nos. 
19 to 29, will, however, answer for most repair- 
ing jobs. The ovals are preferable in most cases, 
as they make holes in the straps large enough for 
the purpose without impairing the strength so much 
as the round ones do. Buckle tongue punches, or 

ili!ilililili!ilil lilililililili 




Fig. 12.— Washer Cutter. 

crew punches (Fig. 15) are handy ; these are made 
in three or four sizes, and they run from No. 33 to 
No. 43, and are used for making the holes that take 
the heel of the buckle tongue when the buckle is 



placed in its chape. This hole may also be made 
by punching two holes at a suitable distance from 
each other, and cutting between them, thus G 
The strap has to be bent and a hole cut through the 

Fi;^. 13. — Round 

Fio-. 14.— Oval Fi^. 15.— Buckle Tongue 


or Crew, Punch. 

bent end, the piece between the holes for the 
tongue of the buckle being afterwards cut out. 
The punches shown by Figs. 16 to IS may be used to 
cut saddle girth chapes, brace ends, etc. 

A hand punch (Fig. 19) is useful for punching holes 
in small straps, or for making holes in harness 
whilst it is worn by a horse. Saddlers are some- 

Fig. 16. — Girth Chape Punch. 

Fig-. 17.— Brace End Punch. 

times called upon to do this, and without a hand 
punch the work is awkw^ard, necessitating the use 
of mallet, punch, and lead. Fig. 20 shows a loose 


Harness Making. 

nipple which can be obtained in various sizes to 
screw in the handle. 

Scalloping irons (Figs. 21 to 24), vandyke, round, 

Fig. 18. — Forepart of Brace End Punch. 

straight, and half-moon are used for cutting any 
fancy or ornamental designs in American cloth 
or fancy leather. Rosette punches (Figs. 25 and 26) 

Fig. 19.— Hand Punch. 

in sets of three or four, are useful for making 
rosettes in patent fancy coloured leather or for cut- 
ting out round scalloped edge pieces. 

Fig. 20.— 

Hand Punch 


Figs. 21 to 24, 

-Scalloping Irons. 

A lead piece (Fig. 27) for punching on should be 
from 6 in. to 8 in. square, and about 1^ in. thick. 
Lead is used because, being soft, it does not 
damage the points of the punches ; but if lead is not 

Harness-makers^ Tools. 


handy, a block of wood 5 in. or 6 in, thick will do, if 
set up on end so that the punch does not cut across 
the grain. 

Fig. 2(). 
Figs, ^b and 26. — Eosette Punches. 

A wooden mallet (Fig. 28) for punching is also 
required, and a lignum-vitse round mallet to work 
the forewales and shape the stuffed bodies of 

Fig. 27.— Lead Piece. 

Fig. 23.— Wooden Mallet. 

collars. Other useful mallets are shown by Figs. 29 
and 30. Two hammers are necessary, one fairly 
light — the proper saddler's hammer (Fig. 31) — and 
the other a heavy one for heavy work. 


Figs. 29 and 30.— Useful Wooden Mallets. 

Tools for marking and ornamenting leather may 
now be mentioned. Fig. 32 shows a tool used m 
stamping the lines preparatory to stitching. These 



Harness Making. 

tools vary in width from three teeth, which are used 
only for round points and scalloped work, to twenty- 
four teeth for straight lines. The teeth on each 
iron are cut to mark a certain number of stitches 

Fiff. 31. 

Y'\r 32. 

Fi<2r. 33. 

Fig. 31. — Saddlers' Hammer. 

Fig. 34. 
Fig. 32, — Pricking-iron. 

Figs. 33 and 34.— Wheel Prickers. 

per inch, from six to sixteen, and these teeth are 
not at right angles to the flat part of the iron, but 
are cut on the slant as at b, thus making an im- 
pression on the leather which acts as a guide in 
forming a stitch perfect in shape as well as in 

Harness-maj^ers^ Tools. 


Wheel prickers (Figs. 33 and 34) are used in sizes 
from seven or eight to sixteen teeth to the inch. 
They are round pieces of steel, having serrated 
edges and a hole in the centre, and are provided 
with a handle in which they are adjusted with a pin 
and nut. A change of stitch, say from fine to coarse, 
necessitates a change of wheel. The wheel is run 
along the stitching line, and in the holes made by 
the pricks the stitches are run. 

The screw-race (Fig. 35) is a tool for grooving 


Fiff. 35. — Screw-race. 


F -:. 3G. 

Figr. 36.— Single Crease. 

lines in any part w^here it is desired to sink the 
stitches below the surface. It is easily adjustable. 

Single creases (Fig. 36) are for marking in places 
w^here neither the screw-crease nor the compasses 
can go, as for instance, in the centre of a large piece 
of leather or wide strap. They are also used to 
mark thick and heavy loops, for which purpose they 
are heated before using. 

Two screw-creases must be obtained, one light 
and the other heavy (Fig. 37) ; one is used for light 
lines and the other for heavy lines along the edge of 


' Harness Making. 

the leather, and for marking the lines for stitch- 
ing. By means of the screw, the points are closed 

Fig. 38.— Checker. 

rig. 39.— Beveller. 

or opened, thus bringing the line nearer to the edge 
of the work or taking it farther away. 

Checkers (Fig. 38) are small double creases with 

Fig. 40.-0ompa5ses. Fig. 41.-Race Compasses. 

two parallel edges, one of which marks the small 
ornamental checked lines on loops ; one edge is run 

Harness-makers' Tools. 21 

along the last line done, which thus serves as a 
guide for keeping the lines parallel. Sizes 1, 2, and 
3 will be sufficient. A brass foot-rule, of course, 
must be obtained. 

Fi'^ 42.— Awl Blade. 

Bevellers (Fig. 39) resemble the single creases, 
but are much thicker and bevelled ; they are used 
for the sole purpose of creasing or markmg loops on 
portions that require ornamenting. In use, they 
are heated and then made to form a deep, wide 
groove on the loop, such as the straight cross lines 
on the front, and any fancy shapes worked on the 

outside of the loop. 

Compasses (Fig. 40) should have a screw and regu- 
lator so that they may be set at different widths. 
They are used for marking the widths of straps to 
be cut and for marking distances, etc. 

Race compasses (Fig. 41) are for the purpose of 
cutting a slight groove or line along the edges ; they 
just take off a narrow strip of the grain and leave a 
faint line, which is blacked with the edges. It 
answers the same purpose as the line cut with the 
screw-crease, either ornamenting the straps or 
marking the line for the stitches. 

With regard to perforating tools, a few awl blades 
(Figs. 42 and 43) and hafts may be obtained.^ Stitch- 
ing blades vary in sizes from 1^ in. to 3 in. long. 

Fiff. 43.— Awl Blade. 


Hold the blade fast in the vice, and with a few sharp 
blows of a light hammer drive the haft or handle on 
the awl, which is then ready for use. Fig. 44 shows 
a sewing awl. Strong thick awls will be required for 


Harness Making. 

coarse work, to stitch, say, a thread of seven, eight, 
or even more cords of hemp in one thread, and the 
thickness of the awl should diminish until the fine 
awl for stitching fine silk and cotton threads is 
obtained. Bent awls (Fig. 45) in one or two sizes, 

Fig. 44. — Sewing Awl. 

such as shoemakers use, are employed for putting 
in wire in saddle flabs for fastening the panel ; they 
have other uses also. 

Half a dozen packets of harness needles (Figs. 46 
and 47), varying in size from No. 2 to No. 6, will be 
necessary ; the lowest number is the coarsest. 
These needles are for wax thread and all other 
stitching threads. Needles will also be required as 
follows : — 2-in. or 3-in. needles for quilting saddle 
panels, etc. ; pointed needles for thimble work in 
stitching linings to saddle panels, etc. ; collar 
needles of different sizes, half-moon shape and 
straight with bent points ; these are from 3 in. to 
6 in. long, the longest being for heavy cart collar 
w^ork and the lightest for patent and light harness 

The seat-aw^l (two shapes are shown by Figs. 48 

Fig. 45. — Bent Awl. 

and 49) is for easing and levelling stuffing in collars, 
saddles, and other stuffed or padded articles. It is 
also useful for levelling thread ; this is turned once 
around the round awl, which is then drawn sharply 

Ha r NESS- ma kers^ Tools. 


backwards and forwards, the lumps thus being 
taken out of the thread. 

The hand- or palm-iron (Figs. 50 and 51) is a kind 
of thimble used on the palm of the hand when driv- 

Fig. 46. 

Fig. i7. 



FijT. 49. 

Figs. 46 and 47. — Harness Needles. Figs. 48 and 49. — 

Seat Awls. 

ing collar needles through leather. A shallow honey- 
combed well is formed in the hand part, which pre- 
vents the needle from slipping, however great the 
pressure may be ; and at the end or point a hole is 
bored lengthwise, about \ in. deep, to take the eve 

2 + 

Ha li NESS Making, 

end of the needle and force it closer to the leather 
when the broad part of the iron is not available 
Holding and gripping tools include the clamp, 

Fig. 50. Fig. 51. 

Figs. 50 and 51. — Hand-irons or Palm-irons. 

known also as the pair of clams. Fig. 52 shows the 
ordinary type, while Fig. 53 is the kind used in sew- 
ing shaft-tugs. Held between the knees in a slightly 
slanting position, the clamp keeps the work firmly 
in position while the stitching is being done ; it lies 
against the left knee, and by throwing the right leg 
over it the work is held fast between the gripping 
points. Note that the saddler has the clamp be- 
tween his legs in a slanting direction, and not as 
the shoemaker, who has them straight up, almost 

Fig. 52.- 

-Clamp or Claras. 

against his nose, when bending over the work. One 
reason for this is that the work done by the saddler 
with the clamp requires more foi-ce to press the awl 

Ha r NESS- ma kers'' Tools. 


through than the work done by the shoemaker ; con- 
sequently the saddler must set his clamp against 
some firm object (his left knee) so that it will not 
yield under the pressure. Another reason is that 

Fig-. 53. — Clamp for Sewing 
Shaft- tugp. 

Fig-. 55. — Jaws of Clamp. 

F.g-. 54. — Home-made Clamp Holding- Work. 

the saddler stitches with needles, while the shoe- 
maker uses bristles, and must see the hole made by 
the awl, as the bristles cannot force their way, as 


Harxess Making. 

the needles, to some slight extent, are able to do. 
The saddler feels for the hole with his needle and 
thus becomes accustomed to finding the hole with- 
out looking, and to getting his needle to follow the 
aw^l as the latter is drawn back ; in fact, the needle 
is inserted in the unseen lower side with more 
accuracy than on the top side, w^hich is in view. 

A clamp can be made easily by the w^orker at 
home. The parts A and b (Fig. 54) are made from 
two oak cask or barrel staves. The lower portion 
c may be a sound piece of white deal, 20 in. by 3 in. 



Fiof. 56.— Nail-claw. 

Fig-. 57. — Cutting Pliers. 

by 3 in., and the only other requisites will be eight 
stout 2i in. screws. The staves should be cut 2 ft. 
long by at least 3 in. wide, the points of greatest 
convexity being in the centre ; the more bent the 
staves are the more useful the clamp will be. Clean 
up the outside with a spokeshave, leaving one end 
the full thickness of the staves, or about 1 in., and 
thinning off gradually to about | in. towards the 
upper ends, which are to form the jaws of the 
clamp (Fig. 55). Round off the outer corners, and 
clean up the inside surface flat, smoothing both 
sides with glass-paper. The dovetail-shaped tenon 



in the lower part c, should be at least 6 in. in 
length, and will require careful cutting, the depth 
of the shoulders and the width of the upper end 
depending upon the amount of curve in the staves 


Fig-. 58.— Iioa Collar Rod. 

which are to be attached to it. It should be borne 
in mind that the object is to embed the staves so 
firmly that their upper ends, or the jaws of the tool, 
press tightly together. With this object the tenon 
should be cut, so that energetic screwing will be 
required to bring the staves home into their final 
position. The screws should be countersunk flush 
with the surface of the staves. 

A small wrench and a medium-sized vice will 
often be found useful. A nail-claw (Fig. 56) is re- 
quired for pulling out the nails used to keep the 
work together. Pincers, nippers, and cutting 
pliers (Fig. 57) will be found useful as occasion 

An iron collar rod (Fig. 58) for stuffing the fore- 
wale must be obtained, as w^ell as a hardwood stick, 
about 2 ft. 6 in. long, and having a V-shaped point, 
for filling the body of collars with straw ; the stick 

Fij?. 59.— Steel Ssat-iron. 

is flat towards the V-shaped end, and round at the 
other end, the corners being rounded off smooth. 

A steel seat-iron (Fig. 59) is used in putting flock 
into cart-saddle panels, but chiefly for stuffing the 
peak of riding saddles, as the tool bends nicely with 

2 8 Harness Making. 

the shape of the saddle without tearing the cover or 
stretching it immoderately. 

Loop-sticks (Fig. 60) are made of hardwood in 
various sizes to suit the wddth and thickness of the 
straps. A set made of hard boxwood or iron, vary- 
ing in width from \ in. to 2 in., and in thickness from 
\ in. to \ in., should be obtained. Less room is 
wanted in shaping a loop for a single strap than 
when a strap of two or three thicknesses is required 
to go through a loop. (A loop is the piece of leather 
placed crosswise on straps having buckles, and it 
keeps the point of the strap in its proper position.) 
A loop stick must be obtained that is thick enough 


Fig, CO.— Loop-stick. 

Fig, 61.— Rubber. 

and wide enough for a trace if in. w4de and propor- 
tionately thick ; there must also be one sufficiently 
thin and narrow for a ^-in. strap ; loop sticks for 
intermediate sizes are also necessary, and it is as 
well to get two each of some of the sizes. For in- 
stance, those things that are done in pairs, such as 
bridle-cheeks, shaft-tugs, etc., will require the use 
of two loop sticks of the same size. Good loop sticks 
are essential to turning out good work. 

A rubber (Fig. 61) made of a piece of hard, close- 
grained wood or of thick glass about 6 in. square 
and V-shaped on one edge is used to smooth down 
two edges w^hipped together, or for flattening and 
levelling any two thin substances, such as leather 
and linen pasted or stitched together ; it is also used 
to rub stitching on the underside of traces or any 



double straps, and for rubbing or stretching damped 

The straining fork (Fig. 62) is sometimes em- 
ployed for stretching wet webbing or leather, one 
end of which is nailed down and the other end 
strained with the fork and secured until dry. 


62. —Straining Fork. 

A coarse file or rasp may be necessary to file down 
wooden and cane driving w^hip-stocks, etc., when 
putting on thongs and in splicing w^hip-sticks to 
level the splice so that both of the parts may lie flat 
against each other. A small round file and a small 
square one, as well as two or three coarser ones, are 
sure to come in handy. Amongst their uses will be 
the filing down of the brass or ironwork of saddles, 
and the making of holes in saddle trees, etc. 



It is now proposed to give some particulars of the 
materials used in saddle and harness making. 

The threads used in the trade are manj^ but the 
principal is waxed thread, made by the saddler him- 
self, and used to stitch harness and straps together. 
By waxed thread is generally meant thread dressed 
with black or cobbler's wax, but the saddler also 
uses thread dressed with beeswax and sometimes 
with white wax. The linen thread used is in various 
colours, yellow, red, black, white, etc., and is on 
reels or in hanks. Silk threads of the same colours 
are used for best work, such as stitching best brown 
saddlery, riding bridles, martingales, etc. The 
white and black linen thread is used for whipping- 
in lining in panels of both gig and riding saddles, 
and for stitching saving pads in any thin material 
for light work, and also in stitching along with the 
red and yellow thread in making riding bridles, and 
all kinds of brown light work. The hemp for wax 
threads, of various strengths, is to be had in black, 
yellow, green, and white. The white hemp is con- 
sidered the best and toughest, though the coloured 
perhaps is a little cheaper. Fine No. 15 and coarse 
No. 3 will probably meet all requirements. 

Beeswax, as already hinted, is used to make 
threads for work that is light as regards both colour 
and substance. Single linen threads of all colours 
are, before using, rubbed with beeswax, which does 
not deaden the colour. White wax is sometimes 
made for brown harness by melting together white- 
lead and white wax ; instead of the latter, the wax 
from best white wax candles may be used. If the 
wax when cold is too soft, add more white wax ; if 
too hard, add a little more white-lead. 

IIar.\'ess-makers' Materials. -xi 


Black cobbler's wax is made by melting together 
\ lb. each of resin and pitch. When thoroughly 
mixed, remove the pan from the fire, and add one 
pennyworth of boiled linseed oil, or less, according 
to the weather. Thoroughly mix this with the other 
ingredients and then pour a little into cold water to 
test it. Let it remain for a minute and then remove 
it from the water, taking care to well w^et the hands 
in doing so, or in the subsequent working it will 
stick to them. If it cracks when working it in the 
hands, it is too hard ; if it pulls out properly and 
sticks well together, it is all right. Put it back into 
the water, and pour in the rest of the stuff after it. 
It is important that the piece tested be not put back 
into the pan containing the rest of the w^ax, as the 
w^ater absorbed ^\\\\ evaporate and make the hot 
w^ax frothy and spongy. Gather the w^ax together 
in the water without loss of time, remove it with 
wet hands, and pull it fast hand over hand as 
quickly as possible till it attains a light golden 
colour. Pull off a small piece with the hands, or cut 
it off w^ith wet scissors, and throw it into the water. 
If it floats on the surface it has been pulled enough ; 
if it sinks, the wax requires more working. If not 
pulled enough, the wax is brittle, becoming tougher 
and better the more it is pulled. In making the 
wax it must be remembered that only half as much 
oil is required in summer as in winter. The colder 
the atmosphere the more oil will be required. 

The quantities of ingredients mentioned w411 make 
about thirty handy lumps of wax, and as a rule a 
pennyw^orth of oil is enough in the coldest weather. 
If, after working it, the wax is too hard, melt it again 
and add more oil ; if too soft, add more pitch and 
resin. Hard w^ax may be used in a way that avoids 
re-melting. The thread, previous to being dressed 
with the wax, is rubbed with tallow, over which the 
wax will run smooth. Cut the wax into lumps the 
size of a large pigeon's egg and keep it in water. 

32 Harxess Making.' 

Directions will now be .given for making wax 
threads. So that the hemp may be kept tidy and 
not mixed up with the tools on the bench, place the 
ball of hemp in a wooden or tin box having a small 
hole in the centre of its lid, through which the hemp 
can pass. Take hold of the end of the hemp with 
the left hand, twist it once around the fingers, and 
draw it through the right hand. When a sufficient 
quantity has been drawn out, break the thread by 
rubbing it on the knee to take out the twist, at 
the same time giving it a sharp pull ; the strands 
thus loosen and break in a ragged end. Throw the 
hemp over a nail or hook in the bench, pull it until 
the sides are each about 2 ft. 9 in. long, keep the 
hemp tight with the end in the left hand, and with 
the right hand spin or rub it on the knee as before 
to untwist the strands ; then pull it sharply to break 
it. The more ragged the broken end is the better 
will be the point on the finished thread. There is 
now one strand 2 ft. 9 in. long and pointed ; with 
the right hand put the points together in the left 
hand, and draw the hemp again over the hook, spin- 
ning and cutting it as before, and repeating the 
operation till the required number of strands is 
obtained. The number varies with the required 
strength, from three to sixteen. 

In putting the ends of the cut hemp together, do 
not leave them exactly the same length ; by leaving 
some shorter than others a nice pointed thread is 
obtained at the finish, fine enough to go into the eye 
of a needle. When the required number of strands 
is obtained, take a ball of wax in the right hand, 
and hold both ends of the thread separately in the 
left ; draw the wax over the points two or three 
times to keep the ends together, taking care to keep 
the ends on the left of the hook twisted round the 
left hand, and holding them tight with the third 
and fourth fingers, leaving the thumb and forefinger 
loose to manipulate the other end in the process of 

Harness-makers' Materials. 33 

twisting ; the wax on the ends or points is a great 
help at this stage. Having an end between the 
thumb and finger of the left hand, set it on the knee, 
and spin or twist it as when cutting the hemp. The 
knee should be raised about 12 in. from the floor by 
placing the foot on a support. Continue spinning 
with the palm of the right hand until the thread is 
twisted enough. If twisted too much, it will work 
into knots when used in stitching. Then put the 
twisted side round the left hand, kept firm by the 
third and fourth fingers as before ; and take the 
other side between the thumb and forefinger of the 
left hand,, and spin it to the proper twist with the 
palm of the right hand as the other side w^as done. 
If the thread is required very smooth, twist both of 
the sides of the thread once round the seat-awl and 
draw the latter sharply backwards and forwards 
along the thread, all unevenness being thus 
smoothed aw^ay. For coarse work and repairs this 
is not necessary, but for best and new work the 
thread should always be smoothed. 

To wax the thread, hold tne two ends of the 
thread firmly in the left hand, and with the ball of 
wax held in the palm of the right hand, rub all along 
the thread, pulling the thread from around the hook 
into the open to enable that portion to be waxed 
also. Pull back the thread into its former position, 
and, with a piece of soft leather or the bare hand, 
rub the thread sharply from end to end to smooth 
the wax and make it even all along. The thread is 
then ready for use. 

Yellow or white hemp thread is made w4th either 
beeswax or w^hite w^ax in exactly the same manner, 
but the point of the thread is not dressed with white 
wax, being left unwaxed until the rest of the thread 
is finished. The end has to be pointed with black 
wax, which will not stick over beeswax or white 
wax. Black wax is the only kind that will keep the 
thread fast to the needles. 

34 Harness Making. 

Nails are extensively used both in putting 
materials together for working and as ornaments. 
The nails used in putting work together are gener- 
ally cut tacks, ranging in length from | in. to 1 in. 
Neat wire nails can now be had, however, much 
cheaper than the tacks, and are to be preferred, as 
they are of uniform size and leave a much smaller 
hole when withdrawn. Clumsy nails spoil good 
work, as the holes made by them are larger than the 
awl used in stitching. Very fine nails do not spoil 
the work, and can be obtained in sizes suitable for 
heavier and clumsier work ; and they may be used 
over and over again if care is taken in pulling them 
out with the nail-claw. Cut tacks are used in put- 
ting gig saddles together, in nailing the leather to 
the tree, in adjusting panels in the gullet and be- 
hind, between the two prongs of the crupper staples, _ 
for nailing seats in riding saddles, etc. Cut tacks 
can be obtained as small as | in. in length. 

Saddlers' tacks of different sizes from \ in. to | in. 
long are used in putting in cart-saddle and riding- 
saddle panels and flaps, and for many other pur- 
poses. Clout nails are used now and then in putting 
houses on cart saddles, and for nailing on straps and 
girths, etc. Clout nails and saddlers' tacks are 
made of wrought iron. Round-headed and japanned 
nails may be used for nailing cart-saddle housings, 
and have a neater appearance than common iron 
clouts. Tough nails are used in making all kinds of 
saddles ; they sometimes have heads covered with 
black patent leather, and sometimes japanned heads 
only. Others have heads of silver, nickel, or brass. 
They are used partly as ornaments and partly to 
hold the work together, and are in two sizes, cab 
and gig. There are usually four in a gig or cab 
saddle, one in each corner of the skirt in front and 
one on each side behind, holding down the binding 
that comes over the cantle of the saddle. The front 
ones are driven through, bent, and beaten close to 

Harness-Makers^ Materials. 35 

the tree backwards, whilst the hind ones are cut to 
taper for about half their lengths to a point ; they 
are driven into the tree. 

In a riding saddle there is one nail in the front, 
one in each of the sides, one in the corner of the 
skirts driven through and bent, and one on each 
side just at the thin end of the skirt, driven inwards 
so as to catch the tree and be flattened close to it. 
There is also one in each flap under the skirt in a 
line with the stirrup fastener, driven through the 
tree on the outside of the plate running along the 
points from, the gullet ; these are bent and flattened 
underneath. Sometimes brass nails are used as 
ornaments, but brass beading has done away with 
their use to a great extent. Formerly country cart 
saddles were ornamented by nailing the housing to 
the tree with brass nails ; the covers of van saddles, 
as well as the opening over the boards, w^ere also 
fastened down with these nails. 

Such pieces as loop leather, the edges of black 
straps, etc., often have to be dyed. The dye or 
stain is made by boiling together for half an hour 
1 lb. logwood chips, 4 oz. crushed nutgalls, \ ib. 
copperas, a little gum arabic, and 5 qt. of w^ater. 
Keep a little in an old bottle hung in a handy posi- 
tion near the bench. The dye is applied by a stick 
having a piece of felt attached to its end. The ink 
can be thinned by the addition of water. In dyeing 
brown leather, it must first be coated with soda 
solution to kill the grease. The solution is made by 
dissolving a piece of washing soda the size of a 
pigeon's egg in a quart of hot water. The black dye 
may then be applied. If it does not strike well, 
rub over it a coarse brush and again coat with dye. 
Rub it well and dry with a rag, afterwards w^ell rub- 
bing in a little tallow with- either a rag or the bare 
hand. The tallow gives a finish and counteracts 
any injury the dye might do the hand, there being 
in the copperas a tendency to burn. 

3 6 Harness Making. 

Flocks, both white and coloured, are extensively 
used in the trade, and can be bought at from 20s. 
to 50s. per hundredweight ; the material can also 
be had in small quantities— even as low as a pound. 
Best white flock should be free from cotton, and 
should be tested by putting a small quantity in a 
candle flame ; if cotton is present, it burns fiercely 
and with a big flame, but fine wool burns slowly and 
smoulders. The best flock is used for stuffing rid- 
ing-saddle panels, etc., and the best drummed flock 
is used for collars, being put near the horse's 
breast under the lining to make the collars easy for 
the shoulder. 

The drummed flocks are in large sheets, and these 
are cut to the size and shape required, and, being 
of even thickness, will not be lumpy, an important 
consideration in making a collar. Coarser flock of 
a w^iite, brown, or any dark colour will do for 
stuffing and restuffing gig-saddle panels. Curled 
horsehair is sometimes used for stuffing panels, and 
is found very cool for an animal with a tender back 
or shoulder ; goat hair is very suitable for stuffing. 
Neither this nor horsehair is so liable to be clogged 
by sw^eating as sheep's wool, though the latter, 
when dry, containing but very little oil and being 
well carded, is used extensively in country places. 

All these materials before use should be put 
through the flock machine once or twice to loosen 
the fibre, and care should be taken when stuffing 
with a rod that the flock or wool is not put in 
lumpy or uneven. After stuffing, the work should 
be levelled with the seat-awl until it is as smooth as 
a board. The drummed flock, of course, is already 
level and even ; it is not stuffed in, but laid on the 
inside of the collar lining before stuffing the collar 
with straw. 

Thick felt is a good substitute for pads to ease 
collars and saddles, and can be bought in various 
thicknesses by the pound. Large cuttings and 

Harness-makers' Materials. 37 

waste pieces can also be bought very cheaply, and 
two thicknesses can be put together if necessary, a 
strap and a buckle being on one side with a strap on 
the other to fasten to a saddle or collar. Felt is 
useful to put under cruppers and to line breechings 
when chafing, or under any strappings that chafe 
the horse's skin. They can be fastened to the above 

by stitching them with a spot stitch, thus , 

about I in. apart, and slanting the awl underneath 
to make the stitch small there as well as on the top ; 
or nails may be used when the felt is sufficiently 
thick. False collars, pads to be used like saddle 
cloths under gig or cab saddles and under cart- 
saddle panels, riding-saddle cloths, and many other 
articles are made of felt. 

The harness maker and saddler uses many differ- 
ent kinds of leather, and, unless the worker pos- 
sesses some knowledge of the particular purpose of 
each variety, much waste is likely to result. Stuff 
too light or too heavy, too thick or too thin, spoils 
a job, and of course entails loss. 

In Fig. 63, which is a diagram showing a cut hide, 
A A show the sides of a harness hide with belly on ; 
c c, backs of harness hide with belly off ; B b b B, 
bellies of hide ; d d, middlings ; e, shoulder ; and F, 
uncut middling. 

Harness leather can be bought in hides (a a) cut 
only along the back, having the belly part attached, 
at the rate of from Is. 2d. to Is. lid. per lb. The 
best part can be used for harness and cart gear ; the 
belly will come in well for repairs, linings, and fill- 
ings. Harness backs (c c) are half hides from which 
the belly (b b) has been cut off ; these have all pure 
firm leather suitable for making all kinds of har- 
ness. The price is from Is. 9d. to 2s. 5d. per pound. 
Trace backs (c c) resemble the above, but are 
picked and more carefully dressed, and are made of 
the finest and best grown hides. They cost from 
Is. lOd. to 2s. 7d. per pound. 

38 Harness Making. 

Rein hides have* the bellies attached but are 
dressed and of picked quality and thickness and 
uniform strength ; they are suitable for making into 
driving reins. For the best part can also be made 
any good light single straps, where strength and 
durability are required. The best part of the belly 
can be cut up into small straps of any kind and into 
linings. These hides cost from 56s. to 72s. each. 
Rein backs resemble the above, but have the belly 
cut off ; the price is from 40s. to 70s. each. 

Black strap butts (d d) are the best part of the 
hide from which the belly and shoulder have been 
cut. They are from 4 ft. 6 in. to 4 ft. 9 in. long, and 
are suitable for any kind of good single strap. The 
price is from 56s. to 72s. a pair. 

Black spur shoulders (e) are light shoulders 
dressed and flattened ; from them are made spur 
and similar straps, garters, wrist straps, etc. The 
price is from 8s. 6d. to 10s. each. Japanned horse 
hides for patent harness collars cost from 40s. to 
46s. each. Cow hides, japanned for the same pur- 
pose, cost from 38s. to 44s. each. Japanned cow- 
backs for collars, etc., cost from 30s. to 39s. per pair. 
Japanned flap hides for making gig, cab, or 
brougham harness saddle flaps are priced at from 
2s. 3d. to 2s. 6d. per pound. The middlings cost 
from 2s. to 2s. 6d. per pound. 

Winker hides, japanned for making bridle 
winkers, cost 54s. to 56s. each, and the middlings 
(f) for the same purpose cost from 32s. to 36s. per 
pair. Japanned welting seals for making welts for 
gig saddles, etc., are priced at from 7s. 6d. to 8s. 6d. 
each. Japanned and enamelled hides for making 
military belts, etc., cost from 54s. to 60s. each, and 
middlings for the same purpose from 40s. to 42s. 
per pair. 

There is great variety in brown or stained leather. 
Bridle hides for all sorts of riding bridles cost from 
50s. to 56s. each. Backs (c c) from the above cost 

Ha rness-makers' Ma teria ls. 


45s. to 50s. each, whilst the butts cost 32s. to 40s. ; 
these are in varying qualities and prices. 

Brown shoulders (e) dressed for coat straps, 
garters, braces, or small straps in general can be 
bought at from 6s. 6d. to 10s. each, and driving-rein 
brown hides at from 56s. to 72s. each. The backs 
cost from 56s. to 66s. a pair, and the butts for hand- 
parts of reins 38s. to 42s. a pair. 

Fig-. 63,— Catting up Hide. 

Double-rein hides — that is, brown leather speci- 
ally selected and dressed for making reins of double 
thickness stitched together, cost from 44s. to 50s. 
each. The backs cost from 40s. to 48s. per pair. 
Head-collar rein backs for making head-collars, 
stallion bridles, etc., can be bought at from 2s. 6d. 
to 2s. lid. per pound. 

40 Harxess Makixg. 

Stirrup hides for making stirrup straps cost from 
2s. 6d. to 2s. 9d. per pound ; there are also inferior 
qualities. Butts for stirrup straps cost from 3s. 6d. 
to 4s. per pound. Brown harness hides cost from 
Is. 6d. to Is. lid. per pound. The backs cost from 
Is. 8d. to 2s. 2d. per pound. Skirt hides for making 
ladies' and gents' saddle skirts and flaps are priced 
at from Is. lOd. to 2s. 2d. per pound. Skirt backs 
are from 2s. to 2s. 4d. per pound, and shoulders, 
Is. 5d. to Is. lOd. per pound. 

Hog-skins suitable for all purposes, but chiefly 
used for saddles, can be bought at from £9 to £12 
per dozen ; they can be bought singly, and there are 
also inferior qualities. 

Sheep-skins in imitation of hog-skins can be 
bought at from 30s. to 60s. per dozen, or copper 
plates for printing basils and a printing press for 
the purpose can be bought instead. Basils for gig- 
saddle panel pads and repairing collars, and cart- 
saddle cheek pads, etc., can be bought at from 10s. 
to 30s. per dozen. The common ones are good 
enough for repairs and cheap vrork. 

Specially dressed hides for making braces or any 
light straps can be bought at from 36s. to 40s. each ; 
the shoulders (e) or bellies (b) dressed for the same 
purpose can be had apart from the hide. Purse and 
pocket-book hides are also specially dressed, and 
cost from 30s. to 40s. each. Calf-skins dressed for 
the same purpose cost from 9s. to 10s. 6d. each. The 
brace and pocket-book and purse leather can be 
obtained stained in various colours, red, brown, 
yellow, orange, etc. The brown harness leather 
also can be had natural or tallow colour or stained 
fawn, nut brown, yellow, or orange. Brown gear 
hides for cart work are from Is. 3d. to 2s. per 
pound, the backs from Is. 7d. to 2s. 3d. per pound, 
and bellies from lOd. to Is. 4d. per pound. 

Mill bands for making driving belts cost from 
Is. 6d. to 2s. 2d. per pound. Engine butts for mak- 

Harness-makers' Materials, 41 

ing strong engine belts, either single or double, cost 
from 2s. to 2s. 6d. per pound. 

Fancy coloured leather for bridle fronts and 
rosettes cost from 40s. to 42s. each middling. 
Striped patent frontings leather costs from Is. 6d. 
to 2s. 9d. per square foot. White buff hides for 
hunting-crop keepers, razor strops, belts, etc., cost 
about 5s. per pound. White bleached buff middling 
is about 5s. per pound. 

A country saddler is often called upon to work in 
coach-builders' leather ; leathers for this purpose 
are not included in the a'bove list, but, as a rule, 
they can be obtained at the same place as harness 

Enamelled cow, ox, and bull hides for carriage 
tops, etc., are sold whole, and not slit along 
the middle, at from 40s. to 70s. each. Coach hides 
and backs for dashes and wings cost from 26s. to 
40s. each. Seal-skins for the same purpose cost 
from 7s. 6d. to 12s. each. Hides for window straps, 
enamelled and prepared, cost from 56s. to 60s. each. 
All coloured carriage cushion hides for making car- 
riage cushions cost from 40s. to 60s. each. Dyed 
and enamelled leather for cushions is sold by the 
square foot. 

It is scarcely necessary to state that all the above 
prices fluctuate with the market. A great quantity 
of harness leather, nowadays, is prepared by the 
quick tanning process, but it is inferior stuff. The 
best leather is that which has been through a pure 
oak tan. It is very hard, however, to tell when the 
inferior process has been used, but as a rule the 
colour, smell, and even taste of the leather decide 
the question ; soft, mellow leather that has not a 
hard feeling to the touch is as a rule good leather, 
especially if it has a close grain and a light yellow 
colour when cut. The inferior quality feels and 
looks dry and hard : it has a dull grey colour and an 
uneven g-rain facing. A good test is to bend it, 

42 Harness Making. 

poor and badly dressed leather cracking in the bend, 
and the grain giving way ; these defects show that 
either chemicals or excessive heats have been used 
in the finishing and tanning. Well tanned and 
dressed leather stands the bending test well. 

A few rules on cutting up hides may now be given. 
When cutting a strap from a hide, do not cut down 
lower than the width of the strap required, so as 
not to interfere with the next cut into the hide. All 
possible care should be taken to prevent waste, and 
pieces of particular shape should be cut from a pat- 
tern. It is sheer waste to cut off a piece of stuff 
larger than is required and then to trim it down. 
In cutting up a hide, lay it on the bench with the 
back part against the worker; use a straightedge 
at least 8 ft. long, and mark with a blunt-pointed 
awl or the seat-awl, using the straightedge as a 
guide. Take care not to cut the grain of the leather 
with the point of the awl, as in the case of the 
straightedge being shifted an indelible mark may be 


If the strap is to be cut with the round knife, set 
the compass to the right width, and put one point in 
position to run along the edge of the leather, and 
the other on the leather so that it marks the width 
to be cut ; pull the compass towards the worker, 
pressing it so that it leaves a plain line. With 
the round knife begin cutting at the right-hand end, 
keeping the leather steady in its place on the 
cutting-board with the left hand. A cutting- 
board ought always to be employed, as nails 
on the top of the bench would interfere with the 
work. Push the knife along the marked line stead- 
ily, taking care that the knife does not slip ; if it 
does, it may make a bad slit and spoil the work. 
Straps are always cut along the hide and not across 
it, the hide being much stronger lengthways. 

The first cutting from the hide is suitable for reins, 
and then in order come traces, back-bands, bridg- 

Harxess-makers' Materials. 43 

ing-straps, hip-straps, and hip-strap tugs ; then 
crupper billet, shaft tugs, name tugs, bellyband, 
bridle head-strap, cheeks, etc. ; and from the belly 
part or third quality in side of hide may be cut 
linings and layers for folds. In making cart harness, 
cut bridge-band, crupper, and bridge-band carrier 
or hip-straps and bearers, and then cart-saddle 
bellybands and bridle ; the best part of the belly, 
with the top well lined, will do for side pieces of 
collar, unless this can be cut from a specially 
dressed piece. 

Specially curried leather must be obtained for 
cart-saddle housings and winkers, as the harness 
leather is not firm enough and contains too much 
oil. The special leather also must be got for the 
saddle flaps, the pieces lying against the ribs of the 
horse under the ridgworth. 

A leather that is cheapest in first cost is not 
always the cheapest to use. That leather is the 
best from which the greatest weight of firm straps 
can be made, and which will continue firm for the 
greatest length down towards the belly part. 

The compass and round knife only were men- 
tioned in the description of cutting straps, but the 
plough is very useful for cutting straps varying from 
\ in. to 5| in. in width. The plough does away with 
the use of both compass and round knife, and cuts 
much more evenly and straight than it is possible 
to do by hand. Its use effects a great saving of 
time, the knife merely requiring to be adjusted on 
the gauge and made fast by the thumb-screw. 
Hold the leather firm and flat on the board with the 
left hand, and press it forward to the plough, keep- 
ing the guard close and tight to the edge all along. 
The uses of the head knife in cutting will be fully 
explained later. 

Brown harness work, as small straps, traces, back- 
band, and breechings, may be finished with a thin 
solution of gum and water, and should be well 

44 Harxess Makixg. 

rubbed with a smooth bone until polished. Machines 
for trimming the edges are made, but their work is 
incomplete, because all lengthy straps have parts 
in which the fibres are less close than at others. A 
good method is to knock the edges all along, con- 
solidate them as much as possible, and then trim 
them round and level with the spokeshave ; after- 
wards run a glass scraper over them and sandpaper. 
Finally, a good rubbing with brown paper and bone, 
after gumming, v>'ill give a fine polished edge to all 
brown work. 

Black straps and harness are prepared in the same 
way for polishing ; black dye them, then rub dry 
with a rag, and polish with brow^n paper and bone. 
Sometimes, after blacking and rubbing, a coat of 
liquid blacking is applied, and rubbed until dry. 
Again, some harness-makers employ black-ball and 
a burnisher to finish after blacking, rubbing down 
well ; this is recommended for the best harness. It 
should be understood that whenever the w^ord finish- 
ing is used here in connection with best harness this 
process is referred to for black and brown harness 
and single straps. 

Common harness and cart gear, especially in 
country places, are usually finished by levelling the 
edges, scraping with glass, blacking, rubbing with a 
rag, and finally, after passing a ball of hard tallow- 
along the edges, rubbing with a bone or hard knife 

Webs are used for a variety of purposes by sad- 
dlers. Girth web for making saddle girths is sold 
in 15-yd. pieces. It can be had in cotton, union, or 
worsted. Race girth is a superior material for 
racing saddles ; it is about 5 in. wide. Web for 
roller girth is from 4 in. to 6 in. wide and in 12^-yd. 
pieces ; it is of cotton, union, or worsted. In the 
same material is made trace web in 18|-yd. pieces, 
\\ in. to 2^ in. wide. Game-bag web is sometimes 
req ired, and is bought by the yard in different 


colours. Men's body-belt web is to be had in 18-yd. 
pieces from 4 in. to 8 in. wide, and in seven or eight 
colours. Straining-web for saddle seats can be 
bought by the yard or in the piece. A country 
saddler finds diaper-web very useful ; this is bought 
in 15-yd. pieces. 

Other requisites, such as bits, spurs, stirrups, and 
harness furniture are described in Chapter X. 

A few reliable recipes for some of the most neces- 
sary articles employed in harness making will now^ 
be given. 

Iron Liquor for Dyeing. — (a) Green copperas, 2 lb. ; 
vinegar, 2 qt. ; pulverised nutgall, ^ lb. ; and water, 
4 qt. Two weeks after mixing add another 2 qt. of 
water, {h) Bichromate of potash, ^ lb. ; logwood ex- 
tract, 1 lb. ; copperas, 1 oz. ; and water, 1 gal. 

Saddlers' Black Wax. — (a) Pitch, 2 lb. ; resin, 2^ lb. ; 
seal oil, one pennyworth. In winter add 2 lb. of 
resin instead of 2^ lb., and never more than f of the 
oil until the stiffness of the wax has been tested. 
(b) Pitch, 1 lb. ; resin, 1 lb. ; and linseed oil, one 

The exact amount of oil to be used in both of the 
above recipes depends on the season and the 
weather. A little lampblack may be well mixed in 
w^hen the wax is required very black. x\lways melt 
the pitch and resin together, and then add the oil. 
Afterwards pour the mixture into cold water, and 
knead and pull it until it floats. Try a small piece 
first to ascertain whether there is sufficient oil, and 
likewise after pulling to see whether it floats. 

Brown Wax. — Beeswax, 1 lb. ; pale resin, 3 oz. ; 
and white-lead, 3 oz. The wax can be softened or 
hardened by adding more or less beeswax. Melt the 
mixture, stirring it, and then pour it into water and 
pull until it floats. 

Flour Taste.- — Water, 1 qt., and alum 3 oz. Heat 
until the alum has melted, and when cold add flour 
to the consistency of cream ; then let the mixture 

46 Harxess Making, 

boil, stirring it at the same time. By adding a little 
powdered resin and a clove or two before boiling, 
the paste will keep for a year and can be softened 
with water when dry. 

Brown Stain. — Boil equal parts of pine and alder 
bark in six times their bulk of water until the colour 
is extracted, and when cold add a little alcohol. 

Yellow Stain. — Boil some fustic berries in alum 
water and darken the shade by adding powdered 
brazil, w^hich must be boiled with the berries. 

Brown, Bussct, and Yellow Stain. — Boil a given 
amount of saffron in water until the colour is ex- 
tracted, cut a quantity of annatto, putting it into 
urine, and mix the urine and extract, the proportion 
of each determining the shade ; the greater the 
amount of annatto the darker the colour. 

Stain for Biding Saddles, etc. — Saffron, three penny- 
worth ; annatto, one pennyworth ; soft soap, one 
pennyworth ; and boiling water, 1 qt. Mix and let 
the whole stand until ready. 

Beviver for Batent Leather. — Mix warm linseed oil 
1 pt., and cream 1 pt. Apply with a sponge and 
polish with a soft flannel or rag. 

Harness Composition. — (a) Glue, 4 oz. ; gum arable, 
3 oz. ; water, | pt. Dissolve all by heat and add 6 oz. 
of treacle and 5 oz. of very finely powdered ivory 
black, and slowly evaporate with constant tritura- 
tion until the composition is of the proper consist- 
ency when cold. When nearly cold, bottle and cork ; 
if necessary the bottle can be warmed before use. 
(h) Mutton suet 2 oz., and pure beeswax 6 oz. Melt 
this mixture and then add finely powdered sugar 
candy, 6 oz. ; soft soap, 2 oz. ; lampblack, 2oz. ; and 
finely powdered indigo, ^ oz. When perfectly incor- 
porated add i pt. of oil of turpentine. Keep the 
composition in pots or tins, (c) Beeswax, 1 lb. ; 
soft soap, 6 oz. ; ivory black, ^ lb. ; Prussian blue 
(ground in), 1 oz. ; linseed oil, 2 oz. ; and oil of tur- 
pentine, ^ pt. Mix well together and pot. Put a 

Harxess-makers Materials. 47 

thin layer of one of the above on the leather and 
polish gently with a brush or rubber. 

Harness Jet. — Molasses, 8 parts ; lampblack, 1 
part ; sweet oil, 1 part ; gum arabic, 1 part ; isin- 
glass, 1 part ; and water, 32 parts. Mix well to- 
gether and add 1 pt. of turpentine. Apply the mix- 
ture with a sponge. If it is hard, place the bottle 
in hot water to soften the mixture. One ounce of 
spirit of wine can also be added when cool. 

Waterproof Paste for Carriage Harness. — (a) Dis- 
solve three sticks of black sealing wax in ^ pt. of 
alcohol, or dissolve lac in alcohol and colour with 
sufficient lampblack, (h) Melt 2 oz. of black resin in 
a glazed vessel over the fire, and then add 3 oz. of 
bees-wax, and as soon as all is melted remove from 
the fire and add ^ oz. of fine lampblack and ^ oz. of 
Prussian blue in powder. Stir all well and add 
enough turpentine to form a thin paste. Cool and 
apply with a sponge ; polish with a soft brush. 

Oil for Farm and Team Harness. — Melt 3 lb. of pure 
tallow without letting it boil, and gently add 1 lb. of 
pure neatsfoot oil. Stir continually until cold, so 
that it will be perfectly mixed, otherwise the tallow 
will harden in lumps. To colour, add a little bone 
black or lampblack. 

Brass Polishing Paste. — (a) Dissolve 3 parts of oxalic 
acid in 40 of water, with 100 of pumicestone pow- 
dered, 2 of oil of turpentine, 12 of soft soap, and 12 
of any fat oil. (h) Beat equal weights of soft soap 
and rottenstone into a paste. 

Plate Powder. — Take as much sulphate of iron as 
will fill a clay pipe, keep it on the fire for a quarter 
of an hour, and mix w^ith powdered chalk. 

Leather Preserver. — To preserve harness from the 
effect of ammonia in stables add a little glycerine 
to the oil employed. 

Leather Cement. — (a) Dissolve guttapercha in bi- 
sulphate of carbon until of the consistency of 
treacle. Shave well the parts to be cemented and 

48 Harness Making. 

then spread a little cement evenly over them. Warm 
them for about half a minute, apply one against 
the other quickly, and press hard. Keep the bottle 
well corked and in a cool place. (5) Melt gutta- 
percha, 16 parts ; pure rubber, 4 parts ; yellow pitch, 
2 parts ; shellac, 1 part ; and linseed oil, 2 parts, and 
apply as above, {c) Guttapercha, 1 lb. ; indiarubber, 
4 oz. ; pitch, 1 oz. ; shellac, 1 oz. ; and linseed oil, 
2 oz. Melt all together. The composition will 
harden when kept, and must be melted for use. 

Bronzing for Leaiher. — A small amount of so-called 
insoluble aniline violet is dissolved in a little water 
and the solution brushed over the article ; it will dry 
quickly. If the result is not satisfactory, repeat the 

To Gild Calf- or Sheepskin. — Wet the leather with 
some egg albumen, and, when dry, rub it w^ith the 
hands damped with a little olive oil. Then apply the 
gold leaf, and pass a hot iron over it. 




Insteuctions have been given on making threads 
and cutting leather, and now a simple exercise in 
stitching may be given in the putting together of 
small straps. 

In making a box strap, cut with the round knife 
or plough from the back of the hide a good piece 
of leather, which should be 6 ft. long, and 1^ in. 
wide. Turn down about 2 in. of one end, cut a hole 
within about ^ in. of the bend, and slit the part out 
with two cuts. Neatly shave down the point of the 
under piece with the round knife, and slant the 
other end a bit at each side to make a neat point to 
enter the buckle easily. Run the No. 1 edge tool 
along the sharp edges of the two sides and of the 
top and bottom ; this takes a small strip off, rounds 
the edges, and produces a better finish. If brown 
leather is used, wipe the edges with a damp sponge ; 
instead of pure water, a very thin solution of gum 
may be used. Then rub the edges with a rag or 
with a piece of brown paper until they are smooth 
and polished. 

Adjust the screw-crease so that it marks a line 
about i in. inside the edges, warm the crease in 
a gas or candle flame, and rub it sharply all along 
the edge, guiding the crease mark on the strap by 
keeping the other side of the crease close up to the 
strap. Rub backwards and forwards until there is a 
deep polished mark on the strap, then mark across 
the point in the same way. This operation is known 
as creasing. 

Two crease marks instead of one may be made 
after turning the thumb-screw to widen the points 
of the tool. Then cut a piece to form a loop about 


50 Harness Making. 

I in. wide and long enough to go round any part of 
the strap and make the ends meet. Edge this in 
the same way as the strap, polish with dye or water 
according to colour, and then crease. 

For a running loop — one that runs loosely along 
the strap — the leather about \ in. longer than twice 
the width of the strap so as to overlap ; shave 
one end on the top or grain side, and the other on 
the bottom or flesh side, so that when jointed the 
pieces will make an even thickness. Allow suf- 
ficient length for the two thicknesses of strap to go 
through, and mark where it is to overlap. Put one 
side of the doubled part in the clamp and stitch the 
side opposite, then reverse it and stitch the other ; 
all running loops are made in this way except for 
very common straps, when the strips are simply 
brought end to end and a stitch or two is made from 
side of the doubled part in the clamp and stitch the 
buckle, put the tongue point of the latter through 
the hole made for it in the strap, and having marked 
the stitches eight or ten to the inch with the wheel- 
pricker on the short underpart, put the loop in be- 
tween the two leathers deep enough for the stitches 
to hold firmly. Begin stitching by the buckle, put- 
ting a cross stitch downwards close to it. Stitch the 
straight row along the line of marks close to the 
buckle end, and have a stitch over ; do not pull the 
thread up at the last stitch, but have both the ends 
underneath. Put two or three stitches in the centre 
at the point ; here also the last stitch is down- 
wards. Then begin stitching the other side. 
With the awl put the first hole close to the 
point and pull the thread through ; make the 
next hole and put the other thread up and 
the top one down, and so on until the loop 
is reached. See that the loop is of the right 
length ; if too long, cut a bit off. Put the point in 
between the two leathers, deep enough to catch the 
stitches, and put one or two stitches in the side next 

Sti^ap Makjng and Stitching, 51 

to the thread, slanting the awl a little outwards at 
the point. Put the upper needle through the loop 
so that the stitching will not be over it, and have 
a stitch or tw^o in the side of the loop next to the 
worker ; finish it up to the buckle. Put a cross stitch 
at the finish, the same as on the other side, and cut 
the thread. Put a loop stick of the same width and 
thickness as the strap through both loops, hammer 
them lightly to shape, and run the warm single 
crease along the edges. With a punch of the right 
size cut the required number of buckle holes, begin- 
ning about 5 in. from the point ; make the distance 
between the holes a little more than the width of the 
strap. This is always the rule in punching single 
straps, such as garters, cart hame straps, dog 
muzzle straps, luggage straps, etc. 

With regard to threading the needles, a properly 
made thread will have a nice point, which must be 
well waxed, and pulled between the finger and 
thumb two or three times to w^arm the wax so that 
it will stick. Pass the end through the eye of the 
needle for from 1 in. to 2 in., according to the fine- 
ness of the point, and holding the thread between 
the finger and the thumb of the left hand, spin it 
from you with the finger and thumb of the right 
hand. Afterwards draw the thread from the needle 
downwards at the point between the fingers so as to 
stick the point together well and make it smooth. 
Take care not to put it too far through the eye, or it 
will be too thick to go through the holes in the 
leather, while if it is not pulled through far enough 
the thread is liable to break. Be careful also to get 
needles of proper size ; light thread for light work 
and strong thread for thick and heavy work ; and a 
fine awl for fine thread, and a coarse and strong one 
for coarser thread, and so on. 

In making the first hole in stitching, put the 
needle and thread up from underneath, and draw 
exactly half of the thread through. Put both 

52 Harness Making. 

needles together and adjust the lengths of the two 
portions of threads, and with the awl cut the second 
hole, and stitch on. Always put the lower thread in 
each hole first and draw it up about 3 in., then put 
the other needle in and pull, always keeping the 
thread from below lowest in the hole and the top 
thread above. This is managed by pulling with the 
upper hand a bit downwards, and with the hand at 
the back of the work a bit upwards, thus tending 
to keep the stitches in position. It may be noticed 
that the hole is not round, but square and elon- 
gated, and tends to help the manipulation of the 
thread. Do not make a practice of pushing the awl 
through the work at right angles to the face, but on 
the slant ; the holes made by the wheel-pricker are 
all on the slant. The above instructions also apply 
to double-thread stitching, the kind mostly used in 
harness making, though many things, such as the 
straps, described above, are stitched with single 

In back stitching, use one thread only ; begin by 
putting it up from below ; put it down backwards in 
the next hole to the one last made, and then pull it 
tightly from below. There is not much difference 
on the top side, but the stitches on the underside 
are twice as long and cross each other in chain 
fashion. Sometimes it is convenient to adopt this 
method to use up waste points, etc., but such things 
as traces, surcingles, waist-belts of web, saddle 
girths, etc., are always stitched with single thread. 
When repairing inferior harness, single thread can 
sometimes be used without stitching backwards, by 
doing what is called spotting, that is, always going 
forward thus / / / , and only up and down forward, 
the stitching appearing like spots, and not as an 
unbroken chain. 

Stitching with white lace in cart work is done in 
this manner : — Put the holes on the upper side very 
close together, but underneath ; the distance apart 

Strap Making and Stitching, 


may vary with the fineness of the work. This kind 
of lace stitching is not much in vogue now, but it 
looks well when across the end of breechings for 
cart purposes, across the openings in cart cruppers, 
etc. Lace needles and white skin will be necessary 
for this work. 

Riding bridles and almost all light brown work 
are stitched single thread and backwards, with 
either white linen, cotton, or silk beesw^axed, or 
sometimes with yellow fine hemp thread beeswaxed. 

Dog-collars are made in a similar way to Ihe 
straps previously mentioned, only the bend is made 
a little longer underneath to allow sufficient lining 
under the D to which the chain may be fastened. 

Now that an insight into stitching has been ob- 
tained, the making of a waist-belt. Figs. 64 to 66, 

Fig. 64.— Plain Waist Belt. 

may be described. Cut the v/eb so that its ends 
meet together round the waist, and also cut pieces 
of very thin belly brown leather or basil, for binding 
the ends ; the latter should be about 1\ in. wide, and 
as long as the webbing is wide. Turn down the 
binding along the centre lengthways, hammer it 
lightly, and with the screw-crease mark along one 
side ; then slip it in both sides of the ends of the 
web, and either put a tack or two in it, to keep it 
in place, or paste it down. Allow the paste to dry 
before proceeding further. With the wheel pricker 
along the crease mark the stitches, about ten to the 
inch, then put the web in the clamp, the latter 
being between the knees, and begin stitching at the 
end farthest from the worker. Use one yellow or 


Harxess Making. 

white linen thread dressed with beeswax. On 
coming to the end, cut the thread ; also cut tne bind- 
ing square with the edge of the web and stitch both 
ends across at some distance from the edge. 

Prepare the pieces to be put over the straps and 
chapes ; cut them about 3 in. wide, and straight on 
one side, making any fancy cut on the other ; two 
of these pieces are wanted, one at each end. Then 
cut the straps and chapes, and use light tinned 
bridle buckles or brown covered buckles | in. wide. 
With the compasses set to the right width, mark out 
the straps on a close piece of brown shoulder or 
belly leather. Cut the straps about 6 in. long and 
the chapes about 2-2 in. long. They may be cut in 
long strips, being afterwards divided into the re- 

Fiy. 6.).— Fancy Waist Belt. 

quired lengths. Form the strap, point one end a 
little, and shave the other end to go under the pieces 
above mentioned ; rub the edges either with water 
or solution, and crease them about tV in. from the 
edge. Then turn down the chapes for the buckles, 
shave down both ends thin, and let the lower one 
be a little shorter than the other. Punch a small 
hole about \ in. from the end, cut the hole clean out 
at the bend, and the piece is then ready for the 

Use thin brown waste to make the loops ; with the 
compasses mark a width of this about | in., cut to 
the right length ; then rub and crease the chapes. 
Place the buckles in the leather, put in the loops 
about half the width of the chape between the two 

Stkap Making and Stitching. 


points of the chape, and close to the buckle, and 
put two or three stitches in each end. The pieces 
to hold up the belt firmly at the small of the back 
should be about 1 in. wide. E-ub the edges and 
crease them as well as the two pieces for the front, 
and mark stitches with the pricker in all of them. 
Three of these back supports will be needed, one 
right across the centre of the belt and one on each 
side, 3 in. from the centre at the top and slanting 
inwards to within 1^ in. from the centre at the 

To determine which is the lower and which is th^ 
upper side of the belt, bear in mind that, when being 
worn, the buckles will be on the left-hand side and 
the straps on the right. Put one of the 3-in. wide 

Fig. 66.— Waist Belt with Pockets. 

pieces flat on the belt, within about 3 in. of the end, 
and either paste or tack it in its place from the 
lower side. Put the straps in about | in., all three 
exactly alike, one in the centre, and the others one 
on each side within \ in. of the edge. Place the 
other piece in the other end so near the edge that, 
in putting the buckle chapes up to the loops under 
the edge of the piece, the outer edge of the buckle 
is flush with the end of the belt. Fasten the chapes 
in position exactly opposite the straps in the other 
end. Then backstitch the pieces in each end all 
round, in the same way as the binding was treated. 
Put a second row of stitches farther in than the first, 
through the strap ends and through the end of the 
chapes ; leave about \ in. between two rows, and 
then lay on the back straps. Having pricked them, 
stitch them in the same way as the others. If 

56 Harness Making. 

pasted on, they can be kept more easily in their 
place ; if pasting is not convenient, pencil on their 
positions and keep them to the mark in stitching. I 

It is usual to put a piece of whalebone or good \ 

hard cane inside these to keep them up ; thin the 
bone or cane and push it in between the leather and 
webbing from one end, and then stitch both ends . 
across. Put four or six holes in the straps and see 
that they work easily in the loops, when the belt is 




Some hints on looping will be given in this chapter. 
The loops are pieces of leather placed crosswise on 
all straps, which have buckles, to keep the point of 
the strap in its proper position. Sometimes also 
loops are employed merely to hold the straps in 
place, as for example in the case of shaft tugs. 
Loops are common to all kinds of straps in general 
and to harness and cart gear in particular. 

Straps made to exact length wdth only one hole 
are cut long enough beyond the hole to go through 
the loop, and so give the work a neat finish. When 
the unused part of the strap varies considerably in 
length, the part run through the buckle being some- 
times 6 in. long and sometimes 3 ft. long, a runner 
loop must be made to hold the point of the strap. 

A runner is a loop which runs loosely along the 
strap to any required part. To make it, one end 
is laid on the other, overlapping it more or less 
according to the size of the loop, and the material 
is then stitched ; it must be made loose enough for 
two thicknesses of the strap to pass easily. 

The width of the loops, except in the case of pipe 
or box loops (defined later) must always be in pro- 
portion with that of the strap ; the broader the 
strap, the broader is the loop. Taste and a due 
sense of proportion are necessary here as elsewhere. 
The loop must never be placed too near the buckle, 
particularly when the strap running through is stiff. 
Both ends of the loop should be placed so that they 
can be firmly stitched ; the first end is stitched 
easily, but the second requires more practice. The 
ends of the loop should be made to meet in the 


Harness Making. 

centre of the strap, care being taken to catch it at 
the first stitch, for then it will not easily slip from 
its place. Two stitches on each side may suffice, 
but a very wide loop will need four or five on both 
sides of the ends. Slant the awl with every stitch, 
using the end of the awl to drive the loop a little 
out of the way. 

It must not be taken for granted that a firm hold 
of the loop has been obtained until it is com- 
pletely stitched ; but make sure of the work at the 
first stitch, as otherwise it may be necessary to 

Fig. 67. — Box Creased Loop. 

unstitch the work and do it again. Care must be 
taken also to ascertain that the loop is straight in 
its place at the first stitch, and that one side of the 
same end is not farther in than the other. A crooked 
loop spoils the appearance of the whole of the work. 
Box loops (Figs. 67 to 70) or, as they are styled, 
pipe loops, are long loops like those on bridle 
cheeks, bearers of gig breechings, hame tugs, etc. 
To make them, measure the length and width of the 
loop required ; for example, a bridle cheek | in. 
wide and 8 in. long will need a loop if in. Avide and 
7^ in. long. 



Before making the loop, crease a line along the 
place to be stitched, about \ in. from the edge, and 
cut a groove along the line to about half the depth ; 
then open the groove well with the blunt point of 
a compass, passing it backwards and forwards. The 
stitching is done along this groove, which is finally 

The groove is necessary on account of the coarse 
stitches, about four to the inch, which are thus kept 
out of sight-and prevented from being worn away by 
friction. Another method is to slit the leather about 

Fig-. 68. — Box Creased Loops. 

Y6 in. from the side ; then to raise it and stitch under 
it. When finished, apply a litle paste or gum to 
hold it firm, and smooth it down over the stitches. 

Mark a line on the loop at about half the width 
of the strap and run a writing pen along it to keep 
the mark visible ; the loop, being of brown leather, 
will retain the mark of the ink, whereas the compass 
mark alone would be obliterated by damping. This 
mark is essential as a guide in fixing the loop and 
stitching. Mark the inside of the loop first time 
and the outer side the second. Damp the loop well 
first. Stitch the first side with black wax three-cord 


Harness Making. 

thread about \ in. apart ; this is an easy job, the 
difficult point being the blind-stitching. Put the 
loop between the winker and the cheek as far as 

Fig. 69. 

Fie-. 70. 

Figs. 69 and 70.— Box Creased Loops. 

the mark and put a tack in each end and one in the 

The first stitches are simple enough, but when it 
becomes impossible to see and reach the hole the 

Looping. 6 1 

awl must be put right through the loop to the other 
thread about \ in. apart ; this is an easy job, the 
side, the needle and thread being passed after- 
wards. Take the needles off both threads, and by 
means of a wire hook pull the inside thread out 
through the loop until it is 3 in. from the hole it 
entered. Now put the awl through the thread close 
to the loop, run the end of the other thread through 
for about 2 in., and pull it through the hole by the 
aid of the first thread to the side being stitched. 
Take out the end of the thread, put through and 
pull both extremities until tight, one in the groove 
and the other inside the loop. Repeat this opera- 
tion with every stitch, but when about half-way 
through the loop, the thread inside must be run 
through to the other end, the work being continued 
from that end until finished. 

Another method of making box loops, thougn it is 
not recommended, is as follow^s : Put an iron loop- 
stick inside and fasten the loop down by driving 
small tacks into the groove, this groove being then 
closed by rubbing the edges well. A third method 
consists in running the threads through w^th a 
bristle, or twisting the threads together and thus 
running them through. 




The make and pattern of cart gear are very varied 
in all parts of the kingdom, and there is often a 
local name for each particular style ; but the only 
gear which can claim special favour is one that 
combines proper strength with minimum weight. 



71. — Horse in Cart G-ear. 

A typical shaft gear is shown by Fig. 71, in which 
A is the bit ring, B the noseband, c winkers, D 
cheeks, E ear-pieces, F throat-lash, g head-strap, 
H forehead band, i reins, K collar forewale, k' hame 
straps, L hame or jambles, M collar body and side- 
piece, N collar draught, o forecart saddle housing, 
p back housing, R cart saddle skirt, s girth and 

Cart Harness. 


girth straps, T crupper, u and v hip and loin straps, 
w and X fore and aft breeching tugs, and Y breech- 


The ornaments used are brass buckles (Figs. 72 to 

Fio-. 72. 
Figs. 72 and 73. 

Fig-. 73. 
-Scotch Brass Gear Buckles. 

75) instead of tinned or japanned buckles, with brass 
face-pieces (Figs. 76 to 78) on the bridle to hang on 
the horse's forehead, brass bells for the bridle (Fig. 
79), hame plates (Figs. 80 and 81) at the top of the 
collar between the two points of the hames or 
jambles, with a strap across from one hame point 
to the other to hold it in position, brass squares, 

FiiT. 74. 

Fig. 75. 

Figs. 74 and 75. — Scotch Brass Gear Buckles. 

ovals (Fig. 82), octagons (Figs. 83 to 85), hearts 
(Fig. 86) on bridle winker or saddle housing corners, 
and brass beading instead of nails over the top of 
the housing where attached to the tree. When 


Harness Making. 

making gears this must be remembered. Other 
details of cart ornaments are shown in Figs. 87 to 92. 

Cart and leading gear made according to the fol- 
lowing directions will be useful anywhere, and w^hen 
this method has been learned any other style can be 

The winkers c (Fig. 71) must be prepared first ; 
blocked winkers with fancy pattern raised against 
the eye are little used nowadays. Fiain winkers are 
just as safe for the eyes if well made. Special winker 
leather must be obtained either from a middling in 

Fijr. 76. 


I I . 

Figs. 76 and 77. — Brass Face-pieces. 

stock, or, cut to pattern, from any currier or 

Cut the pieces straight 7 in. by 7^ in., and mark 
three rows all round the long side and across one of 
the shorter sides with the race compass or racer, 
making the groove deep ; edge them above and 
below with the edge tool and black the edges. After 
soaking them well in water, bend them along the 
centre of the longer width into something that is 
nearly, though not quite, a semicircle. Nail them 
down in any convenient way, with the raised part 
above, on a flat board and let them dry in this 

Cart Harness. 


shape ; drive in the nails near the edges only at the 
side that will be covered and stitched over with the 
cheek. Th6y can be put to dry near a stove or fire. 

Fisr. 79. 

Fig. 78. 

Fig. 80. 

Fig. 81. 

Fig. 78. — Brass Face-piece. Fio*. 79. — Bells and Brush. 
Figs. 80 and 81. — Brass Hame Plates. 

Then run a big hot beveller round the edges and 
along the lines made until the groove looks deep and 
polished. Having two |-in. roller tinned buckles, or 


Harness Making. 

brass Scotch buckles, cut two chapes to the same 
width. Chapes are pieces to hold on the buckles ; 
the name is also applied to the part going round 
buckles on any length of strap. The chapes are 

Fig. 82. 

Fig. 83. 

Fig. 84. 

Fig. 85. 

Fig. 82.— Brass Oval. Figs. 83 to 8.5.— Brass Octagons. 

made 3^ in. long and turned down 2 in. from one 
end ; make the short end very thin and the other 
end slightly so, then point the piece. Cut a buckle 
hole at the bend, edge, crease, and prick for stitch- 
ing ; then put the chapes in the buckles and make 
the tops of these last flush with edge and front of 
winkers, working as follows : — 

Tack the chape down in its place in the front 
corner where the creasing on the edges meets, and 

Fig. ^^. 

Fig-. 87. 

Fig. 88. 

Fig. 86. — Brass Heart. Figs, 87 and 88. — Brass Stars. 

stitch. With tinned buckles put on a loop ; Scotch 
buckles, as Figs. 72 to 75, do not need any ; place 
the other chape and buckle on the corner of the 
other winker and stitch likewise, taking care to put 

Cart Harness. 


it on the reverse corner to the other to make the 
winkers pair. 
Now cut the cheeks d, or the pieces that run down 

Figr. 89. 

Fiof. 90. 

Fig-. 91. 

Figs. 89 and 90.— Brass Hame Knobs. Fig-. 91.— 

Brass Swing. 

the side of the head, making them 2 ft. 2 in. by 
1^ in. ; turn them down so as to make both ends 

Fig. 93. 

Fi"-. 94. 

Figr. 92. 

Fig. 92. — Brass Swing'. Fig-. 93. — Ear-piece. 


Fig. 94. 

meet underneath in the centre, and give the bends 
in each end a slight tap with the hammer. It is 

68 Harness Making. 

better to draw in the imderpart a little so as to have 
the top somewhat longer, because as there is a bend 
in the winker outwards the lower side should be a 
little shorter. Cut a hole for the buckle in one end 
and another in the centre of the bend, which is also 
the centre of the strap, at the other end ; from this 
hole cut straight out to each side and shave the 
edges of the cut. Edge the cheek on the outside 
only and race it along the top part with the race 
compass ; the second race must be made close to the 
ether, care being taken not to run them into one 
another. Make another line a little more than \ in. 
from the last, blacken the edges and lines with 
black dye, and rub them with a rag ; then prick the 
two inner rows with the pricker, eight per inch, put 
the buckle in its place and the bit ring a in the other 
end, and stitch both ends of the cheek together. 
There are two bit rings on each side, fastened 
together by a small link ; one ring, that placed in 
the cheek, is larger than the other. The smaller 
ring must be kept for the bit after the completion 
of the bridle. Both cheeks are made in the same 
way, but the slit from the centre hole in the bend 
must be reversed, otherwise the cheeks will not 

The winkers c and cheeks d (Fig. 71) being ready, 
cut the nose-band b about 2 ft. long and 2 in. wide ; 
turn in both ends equally, leaving about 1 ft. 4 in 
for the noseband ; shave the ends rather thin, and 
make a punch-hole in the centre of the bend, then 
slit it out straight from both holes on the same side, 
and shave the sides of the slit. 

Edge both sides of the nose-band where it is not 
double, and make two rows along it with the race 
compass, deepening and polishing them with the 
hot beveller, after which prick the double row on 
both sides from the bend to the lined part. 

The nose-band is now ready for adjustment at the 
proper time. The forehead band h (Fig. 71), or 

Cart Harness. 69 

front, must be cut about 2 ft. 3 in. long and 1^ in. 
wide. Edge, crease, black, and rub it and pass a 
hot beveller over the grooves. Cut the ear-pieces e 
(see also Fig. 93) 1^ in. wide and 9 in. long, and 
double and flatten the bend, shaving one end well. 
Take a piece of any strap l| in. wide, and put it in 
the bend, close up ; mark how far the inner side runs 
in the ear-piece, the l^-in. strap being allowed to 
run smooth in the opening between the line and the 
bend. Mark two rows of pricking, eight per inch, 
on each side from the cross-mark to the point or 
end, having previously made a double row of creas- 
ing all along. Stitch from the cross line to the point 
with three-cord thread ; stitch the cross line coarse, 
about two stitches for one of the other stitches. Rub 
the edges, making them even by cutting if neces- 
sary, then black and rub. Place the forehead band 
H in position, and stitch it end to end with the ear- 
pieces, and cut a small V-nick in the joint of each 
end on the same side. 

The object of the nick is to provide space for the 
small projection in the tongue of the buckle when 
put into position. Some harness-makers cut the end 
of the ear-pieces, before joining them to the fore- 
head, in a slightly slanting way in such a manner 
that the end with the opening will turn up a little 
when in place, but this is not essential. Moreover, if 
the forehead band is to be covered with any kind of 
fancy cloth or leather, this covering had better be 
done before the ear-pieces are stitched, because the 
vvork will be much easier than when the bridle is 
completed. Cut the material, red American cloth, 
leather, etc., double the width of the forehead, and 
allow \ in. more to go round the edges ; finally, 
herring-bone-stitch underneath along the centre, 
and stitch on the ear-pieces. 

Corner-pieces (Fig. 94) are now required to sup- 
port the nose-band and to join it and the cheek well 
together when complete. They are in one single 

70 Harness Making. 

piece near the bit ring corner, descending from 
cheek to nose-band. To make the cliin strap, cut it 
1^ in. wide, one piece being made 6 in. long, leaving 
2 in. of the original width, and then narrowing the 
rest to I in. with a rounded point. The other part 
is made 12 in. long, and 2 in. of the original width is 
preserved, the rest being narrowed to | in. ; then 
turn down a chape and make a hole for the buckle 
in the narrow end, after w^hich edge, crease, and 
black both, then adjust buckle and loop. 

To put the bridle together ready for stitching, 
work as follows : With a ring at one end and a 
buckle at the other, place the forehead band be- 
tween the cheeks in such a way that the centre 
where the forehead band and ear-pieces join may be 
right under the centre of the buckle with the nick 
against the tongue. Drive a tack on the inner side, 
and put the nose-band in the same ring as the cheek 
at the other end, with the slits made in the bends 
upwards ; fix the corner-pieces one part in the cheek 
and the other in the nose-band, sufficiently low to 
catch when stitching the nose-band. The corner- 
pieces must, of course, be placed between the two 
leathers, both in the cheeks and nose-band : the 
inner side of the corner-piece must follow the ring in 
the cheek like a half-circle. 

The outer part is supposed to have been pre- 
viously edged and creased. The point of the slits in 
the nose-band comes underneath the slits in the 
cheeks on both sides in such a way that the edges in 
the cheeks may cover and neatly overlap the edges 
of the slit in the nose-band and catch them during 
work of stitching the cheek. Both winkers are now 
adjusted with buckles in the front corners, turned 
upwards to meet each other ; place the winkers close 
to the ear-pieces and forehead, making the outside 
flush with the outer edge of the cheek. Tack down 
the winkers, keeping the bend in shape as set after 
drying ; thus there is an opening between the two 

Cart Harness. 71 

sides of the cheek from the end of the corner-piece 
to the bottom of the winker. 

Cut a piece of leather as near as possible of the 
same thickness as the winkers and of the same 
width as the cheeks. Place it between the two sides 
of the cheek to fill the hollow, and so have a firm 
cheek all along ; tack the piece down and see that 
it fits tight ; there must be no looseness where it 
joins the winker and corner-piece. 

The chin strap is now adjusted, the wide end of 
the short piece being placed inside the cheek under 
the centre filling for a distance of about | in. and 
about \\ in. from the bottom ring. This is the right- 
hand side, taking a front view of the bridle. The 
other piece, with buckle, goes on the other side, 
and both are tacked down. When two small loops 
are to be placed on each side near the buckle at the 
top of the cheek they should be tacked down so that 
they may be stitched in with the cheek ; but for a 
long loop, adjust beforehand on the cheek, by stitch- 
ing the ends loosely together. Nail the first side of 
the long loop and clinch the nails underneath over 
a loop-stick, leaving this inside while nailing the 
other side in the same manner, partly running over 
the ear-piece e (Fig. 71) and forehead band h and 
partly over the winker. 

Stitching may be begun on the near side at the 
ring, and continued up to the loop on the outside ; 
then begin at the loop on the outside of the other 
cheek and stitch down to the ring. The outer row 
on the inner side of the first cheek and of the second 
check is now^ stitched. When stitching opposite the 
winkers on the inner line two stitches may be made 
instead of one by slipping a stitch between each ; 
fine stitching is apt to cut the winkers, and they 
often fall off before being worn out ; consequently 
slipping a stitch is a good method. A row must now 
be stitched on each side of the nose-piece in each 
end, then the inner rows of the cheek, and finally 

7 2 IIarness AlAKim. 

the inner rows of the nose-band. Level the edges of 
the cheeks and nose-band, scrape them, and black 
the edges ; then rub them with tallow and bone. 

Having creased and finished the loops, make two 
basil pads as long as the distance from the buckle 
to the bottom of the winkers. For a cheek of \\ in., 
cut the pads 1 in. wider than twice the width ; fold 
them lengthwise 30 that the edges will meet in the 
centre, and stitch the ends together with the basil 
inside out. Now^, after turning them inside out, 
stitch the edges together like the ends with pointed 
needle, thimble, and white linen thread. Run the 
stitches from both ends and leave an opening about 
1 in. long in the middle, through which ram in the 
flock stuffing, but not too hard. Having stitched the 
opening, place this side against the cheek of the 
bridle under the winker, and as far as the buckle ; 
choose three nails having large heads, run small 
tufts of flock to the heads of the nails, and fasten 
the pads down firmly to the cheek by driving a nail 
in each end and one in the centre, taking care that 
the points do not appear on the other side ; trim 
the flock on the nails with the scissors. 

The winker straps are made as follows : Cut a 
strap 24 in. long and 1^ in. wide, then slit it exactly 
in the centre for 13 in., making a punch hole at the 
end of the slit ; shape the points of each slit to go 
through the buckles on each winker, and make a 
cross line 1^ in. from the end of the slit, marking it 
deeply. At a distance of 1^ in. from this line make 
a second line, and a third 1| in., making them all 
deep ; turn down the strap so that the centre of the 
bend will be exactly at the last mark. Knock the 
bend flat if the point runs beyond the end of the slit 
after turning down ; cut some off and shave it down ; 
edge it on both sides except where the parts over- 
lap. Crease all along the edges, and make one or 
two rows with the screw-race ; then black, rub, and 
finish the creases. Leave an opening from the bend 

Cart Harness. 73 

to the next cross line, then put a piece of leather to 
fill the space between the cross line and the next to 
it and wide enough to be stitched through in work- 
ing across ; then leave the space between the next 
two lines open, and stitch down the point of the 
bend from the end to the cross line. Stitch along 
the pricked part and along the cross lines, the 
stitches on the latter being twice as coarse as the 
straight lines. 

There should now be two openings, one at the end 
and the other beyond the next stitched part ; that 
at the end is for the throat lash f (Fig. 71), and the 
other for the head strap G. Having rubbed the 
edges and finished, cut the head strap 1 ft. 10 in. 
long and 1^ in. wide ; narrow the ends for the pas- 
sage of the buckle, crease, black, and finish. Now 
cut the throat lash 3 ft. 8 in. long and l\ in. wide ; 
turn in 2 in. for the buckle at the best end and 
narrow the point to enter the buckle at the other 
end ; crease, black, finish, stitch on the buckle and 
loop, and then finish the loop. 

A rein is now cut 5 ft. long and 1^ in. wide for the 
off side, and another 2 ft. 4 in. long for the near side. 
Turn down the chape for the buckle in the weakest 
end of the short rein, and 3 in. at the best end of 
each to fasten to the ring at the bit ; then edge 
crease, finish, and stitch in the buckle and loop, also 
making a running loop on the short rein. Now mark 
four rows of stitching on the double part about to 
be stitched to the rings ; stitch the shortest part of 
the rein with the buckle to the ring hanging by a 
link from the cheek ring on the right hand w^hen 
looking at the front of the bridle, then stitch the 
long rein to the ring on the other side. Make three 
punch holes on each side of the head strap, equi- 
distant from the point and from each other, and 
then six holes in the throat lash, three in the slits 
of each winker strap, and nine in the long rein. 

The bridle being ready for adjusting, place the 

74 Harness Making. 

head strap up to its centre in the opening next to 
the slit in the winker strap ; then fasten each end 
of the head strap to the cheek buckles through the 
second holes. Now place the throat lash in the 
opening in the ear-piece on the off side, running it 
through the outer opening in the winker strap, 
down the opening in the other ear-piece, and then 
through the buckle at the other end. 

Buckle the winker strap slits to the winker 
buckles, pass them through the loop, and buckle the 
rein in the sixth hole ; this completes the bridle. It 
it is to be polished, coated with jet, or ornamented, 
this must be done before putting the parts together. 

Cut out all parts according to the dimensions 
given before beginning to stitch ; this is more work- 
manlike than cutting the parts as the work pro- 




In making a cart collar (see Fig. 95) the first part 
to take in hand is the forewale a ; the material for 
this must always be cut 8 in. longer than double the 
length of the collar when finished, to allow^ for 
shrinkage. Supposing the collar is to be 20 in., the 
leather must be cut 48 in. long. The leather can be 
cut from the bellies of gear hides, which come in 
handy when proper hide is not available. Cut it 
7-2- in. wide and make the length to meet require- 
ments, and then damp it thoroughly. Stretch it on 

' Fig-. 05. — Cart Collar without Side-piece. 

a flat board by holding one edge with the hand and 
pulling the other edge with the pincers. Fold it 
over 2| in. all along ; adjust the compass by rule 
to 2j in., and mark from the turned side, so that 
there will be I in. of leather outside the mark on 
which to stitch the lining. On the opposite side 
there will be about 2 in. to draw in the body b and 
stitch the side-pieces. Tack along the mark here 
and there to keep it in its place. 

Make a ten-strand thread, waxing it before and 
after twisting. This thread must be long enough to 

7 6 Harness Making. 

stitch all the length, and at least twice as long as 
ordinary thread. Use strong needles, making about 
three stitches to the inch ; always leave the stitches 
slack, merely drawing them home, especially for 
about a foot on each side of the centre. Thus the 
forewale will bend easier in working round, and the 
stitches will tighten enough in stujfing. If the 
leather has an uneven grain, close here and open 
there, a piece of calico slack may be put inside the 
forewale A ; take care that both sides of it are 
caught in stitching. This will help to keep it 
straight even when being stuffed. 

The forewale is now ready for stuffing. Having a 
bundle of r^'e straw at hand, pull a few handfuls 
across the knee until the straw is straight ; cut the 
ears off, and then cut the handful of straw in half, 
and again divide it with the collar knife until about 
9 in. long. Place it neatly in a heap near the work- 
ing-seat on the right-hand side, with the collar rod 
and mallet lying close by ; there must also be a 
thick, solid block of wood placed on the firm ground 
in front of the worker's seat. 

The collar- maker must now sit down and mark the 
centre of the leather with a nick or stitch. The fore- 
wale is now placed on the block, and the left foot 
laid on it, about 2^ in. from the centre, the folded 
part of the forewale being furthest. Put the other 
end on the right knee, and, holding the collar rod 
in the left hand point upwards with the head against 
the knee, take about half a dozen cut straws, and 
give them a half twist with both hands. Place the 
centre of the wisp in the nick of the collar rod and 
hold it firm with the right hand, the forewale being 
handled with the left. Put the straw in the fore- 
wale and press it down to where the foot is on the 
block, 2^ in. from the centre ; beat the wisp well on 
the block with the mallet, leather as well, and then 
put another wisp in from the other end, taking care, 
when putting in the wisps, that they do not catch 

Cart Collars. 77 

those already inside and drive them back ; to avoid 
this, beat well after each wisp has been put in, and 
when the iron reaches them raise the point a little. 
Continue to work in this way, putting in wisps alter- 
nately at each end until the forewale is as hard as 
it can be made. When the straw seems firm enough 
not to move, the wisps can be knocked in instead of 
being pushed by hand. See that they go into the 
centre of the straw. Push the straw and rod down 
the centre as far as possible ; turn the forewale and 
the rod with the point upwards, knocking the wisp 
in firmly against the collar block in front. 

Repeat the process from the other side, and so 
on until all is as hard as a piece of wood. To shape 
and round the collar it must be continually turned 
round the knee, turning one side to the right and the 
other to the left hand. This operation is repeated 
after every one or two wisps are put inside ; take 
care that the forew^ale does not get straight. When 
turned enough, three or four wisps may be put into 
each side before changing ; but both sides must be 
shaped alike. 

When approaching the top, shape it inwards a 
little in the same w^ay as it was turned ; fill with 
straw until the top is quite firm, and then place it 
flat on the block, beating it well into shape with the 
round mallet, and holding it down with both knees 
at one end while shaping the other. Now damp it, 
and turn it backwards a little at the top on both 
sides ; stitch both points firmly together with waxed 
twine and collar needle and hand iron, cutting a 
little off when necessary to bring it to the right 

To make a pipe collar, follow all the above direc- 
tions and proceed as below. Obtain a piece of iron 
9 in. long, \ in. in diameter, and having a sharp 
point ; in the middle it must be shaped half-round, 
with the points turning a little outwards and up- 
wards. Put straw around it, tying it as tightly as 

JZ Harness Making. 

possible to within 2 in. from each point, and let the 
straw at each end be of different lengths, a few 
inches longer than the points of the iron, so that it 
will splice well when stufEng is commenced. Add 
straw, and tie again until the straw around the iron 
is the right size, then place it in the centre of the 
forewale, and stitch as tightly as possible, pulling 
the stitches well ; make sure that it fills the forewale 
well, but having passed this part, leave the stitches 
slack. Now stitch from end to end, and stuff from 
each end as in the other case, remembering to splice 
them well where the iron ends ; the sharp point will 
not be much of a hindrance. Finish as with the 
other collar. 

In making the body of the collar, cut the lining 
to Fig. 96, and in any required size ; 14 in. is about 
the average at the draught when the strain of pull- 
ing is on the collar. Cut a leather throat-piece 
about 2 in. wide at the base, and widening out to 
3^ in. in a sweep to the top. Stitch the narrowest 
end of the lining, which is about 4^ in. deep, to the 
sweep of the throat-piece, turning in a little of the 
linen or woollen check to make the part under the 
stitches strong. 

The narrowest part of the centre of the throat- 
piece must now be tacked to the exact centre of the 
collar by the stitches, putting the edge even with 
the rim of leather running inside from the stitches. 

Add another tack without pulling at the lining, 
but leaving it rather slack from the centre, just at 
the part where the forewale begins to run straight 
upwards. Another tack is now placed within 5 in. 
from the top on both sides, and the lining pulled 
tightly to there from the bottom, the edges being 
turned in all round. 

Basil is employed for part of the lining in some 
localities ; about 6 in. is measured from the top of 
the collar. A pattern of the lining must be cut out 
of brown paper, and then the basil can easily be 

Cart Collars. 79 

made to fit the shape of the linen lining ; the basil 
must be whipped in with white linen thread and 
the linen turned in a little under the stitch, being 
rubbed flat afterwards. The lining being ready, 
make a four-cord thread of black-wax, cut it in two, 
and thread a harness needle with half. Having a 
suitable awl, whip the lining in all round through 
the leather rim above the stitches inside the fore- 
wale ; the stitches of course must be inside, and 
should be well rubbed. Everything is now ready 
for making the body. Wax some strong twine or 
make a long beeswax thread, with four or five 
strands, 3^ yds. long, and have another about 1\ yd. 
long with six or seven strands. 

Now a strong old strap, 1 ft. long, with a buckle 
is wanted ; this is called the throat strap. The hand- 
iron, a medium-sized collar needle, seat-awl. 

Fig-. 96. — Cart Collar Lining. 

scissors, and collar knife being placed near at hand, 
get a bundle of rye or wheat straw, preferably rye, 
and place it straight together by the side of the 
stool, with a sheet of drummed flock or basket of 
carded flock all within reach. As during work the 
legs are placed inside the collar, making it awk- 
ward for the operator to move, it is well to have 
handy a flat-headed mallet besides the collar mallet. 
Thread the collar needle with the shortest thread 
and hang it close by, and having pulled a big hand- 
ful of straw from the bundle, sit down and put the 
right leg through the collar lining, the throat being 
placed upwards. 
Place the middle of the handful of straw exactly 

So Harness Making. 

in the centre of the throat-piece, between it and the 
f orewale ; then take the needle and thread it, the 
handiron being in the right hand. Make a stitch 
from the centre of the throat over the straw to the 
big margin of leather on the other side ; make an- 
other stitch at the same place to keep the throat in 
the centre, and more stitches, about 1^ in. apart, for 
about 6 in. up one side from the middle towards the 
left. Fasten the thread and cut it, turn the collar 
with the other side facing you, and stitch it again 
on this side exactly like the first, taking great care 
to make both sides similar in shape and size. 

Take the stuffing-stick and fix a wisp of straw on 
the point, beating it along to the centre of the straw 
and a little beyond the centre of the throat. Place a 
similar one on the opposite side, and so continue 
until the bottom part is firm and hard. Now lay it on 
the block, with the lining on the top, and pull the 
lining outwards as much as possible. Hold it by 
the knees, one on each side, and beat the throat out- 
wards as far as possible with the round collar mallet. 
Put the throat strap round it and the forewale, pull- 
ing it as tightly as possible to keep it in position 
while making the other part. Now take a wisp of 
straw, large enough to fill the body of the collar 
pretty well, cut it square at one end, so as to get 
almost the full bulk at the section, and see that it is 
long enough to go the full length of the collar body. 
Wrap a piece of hemp five or six times round the 
part just cut, making it firm for about 6 in. along, 
and somewhat pointed. Run the long thread 
through the needle, and put both knees through the 
collar with the lining towards you. Open the lining 
flat as it lies on the knee and raise the straw issuing 
from the throat so as not to be in the way ; then 
cut a piece of drummed flock to the same size as the 
lining, to come within an inch or so of the edge. 
Take care to place it level in all parts, reaching well 
down towards the throat and forewale. Cut another 

Car 7 CoLLARSi St 

handful of straw and put it over the flock opposite 
the draught and as near as possible to the forewale. 

Open the straw running from the throat in the 
centre, and put the long tied wisp inside, ramming 
it as near as possible to the throat ; pull the lining 
over the straw from the top to the bottom, and then 
pass the seat-awl through the lining and leather to 
fasten the top. Turn the collar the other way 
about, put both legs in again, and begin to draw in 
the lining where the bottom stitching left off. 

Now lace it from bottom to top, running the 
needle from lining to leather and leather to lining 
till finished. Draw the stitches as tightly as pos- 
sible, pulling each to tighten the other, as in lacing 
a boot. So far, the collar is neither hard enough 
nor shapely enough ; the straw must therefore be 
beaten down between the lacing. To do this, the 
mallet must be grasped round the handle close to 
the head, and the straw struck as hard as possible 
with the handle. 

Having improved the shape of the collar, begin to 
tighten the lacing again from end to end, keeping 
the desired shape constantly in mind. If the collar 
is not firm enough, begin work at the bottom, ram- 
ming down some wisps towards the throat from be- 
tween the stitches, and continue this until the 
draught is reached, shaping as well as stuffing. 
It may be hardened, from the draught up to the top, 
by driving some wisps from the extreme top, and 
shaped by tightening or slackening the lacing, as 
the work demands 

Great attention must be given to shaping, for a 
well-shaped body is very important from the point 
of view of both utility and appearance ; it should 
be graceful and rounded at the bottom and some- 
what flat at the draught, gradually growing narrow 
tow^ards the top. At the extreme tip, however, the 
collar should be rather full, with extra flock to ease 
the neck. Work in the same manner with the other 

82 Harness Making. 

side, using as nearly as possible the same amount of 
flock and straw ; take care to obtain the same shape 
and size. 

If any lumps can be felt in the flock, loosen and 
level it with the seat-awl by stufiing it off or on as 
required ; beat it slightly all round to give it a 
smooth appearance. Cut the straw at the top, turn- 
ing the lining down out of the way ; beginning close 
to the fore wale, cut it slanting upwards a little 
towards the back. Make two or three long stitches 
in each side through the lining on both sides and 
the straw to pull the linings together. Then stitch 
together the two sides, drawing the lining over the 
outer side ; run the stitches through from side to 
side and cut the spare lining at the top ; this com- 
pletes the work. Trim the points of the forewale 
previously stitched, and cut them into a neat point, 
which should be neither long nor sharp. 

Having cut a piece of soft leather, form it into a 
cap reaching low enough to cover the stitches that 
join the point on each side ; stitch the front with a 
welt between the edges long enough to reach the 
back under the forewale, so that a stitch can be 
put through it there when stitching the cap. This 
last must be long enough to come over the point of 
the body behind ; damp the cap and put it in its 
place. Take a lace and the collar needle, draw it 
down tightly into the hollow between the body and 
the forewale, then stitch through it, burying the 
welt underneath to fasten the cap in front by a 

The other part must be stitched with a lace all 
round over the top of the body ; make the point of 
the forewale very prominent to hold the hame strap. 
Two \\-vci. straps, 18 in. long, must now be cut ; 
race the edges and blacken them, point them for the 
buckle, and punch four holes in each, and another 
hole in each corner at the opposite end and one in 
the centre 2^ in. from the end. The four holes in 

Cart Collars. 83 

the forepart are to fasten the buckles to the crupper 
or cart-saddle and the others to stitch to the collar. 
Place one on each side of the collar down to the 
forewale 5 in. from the top. Fasten them with lace 
by stitching through the hollow between the fore- 
wale and collar body, putting two stitches through 
and through to the other side ; then send the collar 
needle in the direction of the other hole in the 
centre of the strap, and make one stitch from each 
side of the strap through this hole ; fasten the lace 
well and cut it. 

Pieces of leather of the shape shown by Fig. 97 
are now required to cover the side of the body. The 
pattern can be cut out of brown paper according to 
the made body and kept for other work. Cut the 

Piy. '.17.— Cart Collar Side-piece. 

paper close to the rim all round to cover the body 
full in all parts outside, but a little wider and 
pointed at the top to keep rain-water off and give 
a good appearance. Cut one side only at a time, 
and, as the two sides join in the centre at the top 
and bottom, cut the top slanting downwards 
towards the forewale to the same shape as the body, 
and line the top for about 1 ft. downwards on each 
side with firm leather ; shave it on the inner side 
and bottom. 

The pieces need not be so wide as the side-piece ; 
half its width or a little more will do. Make three 
rows of stitching, and join them together at the 
lower part along the lined part ; the distance be- 
tween the rows should be about 1 in., with nine 

84 Bar.vess Making. 

stitches per inch. Rub the side-pieces and blacken 
them ; crease two rows with a screw-crease all 
round the outer side not stitched. When cutting, 
take care to have the best part under draught. 
Join the two sides together at the top with stitch 
after stitch from one to the other, thus drawing 
them close end to end. 

Crease and prick a li-in. piece of leather, cutting 
it to the same length as the joint, and thinning it 
towards the collar end ; the other outer end must 
be shaped to the point of the joint. Now tack the 
piece and stitch, keeping it quite over the centre of 
the joint, and making the stitches exactly at the 
same distance on both sides ; it is w^ell to put a bit 
of thin lining underneath the stitches. Damp the 
side-pieces well in water, and have a long lace ready 
to run the side-piece in ; damp and grease it, and 
have it long enough to go all round the collar if 
possible, with sufficient to spare for fastening. 

Take out the side-pieces, beat the water from the 
leather, and fasten the pieces to the centre on top 
with a big strong awl or seat-awl. Pull them to- 
gether as tightly as possible from top to bottom ; 
let them overlap about 3 in. at the bottom, shave 
the leather down a little here, and fix the pieces in 
place with the awl. Then see that they are in the 
right position, not too near nor too far from tlie 
forewale ; put an awl on each side near the draught 
to keep them in position there. 

Begin lacing them in at the throat-piece, making 
the stitches 2 in. or 2^- in. apart, at about the same 
distance from the edge all round ; be sure to catch 
the lining underneath with each stitch. Then take 
another long lace and pull it in at the throat ; draw 
it close to the forewale all round till the point of 
commencement is reached, running a stitch over the 
edge of the side-piece, and catching the leather 
everywhere by the forewale ; the stitches should be 
about \\ in. apart. 

Cart Collars. 85 

Some harness makers run a piece of leather about 
13 in. under the draught, fasten it with a few 
stitches to the collar body in the lower part, and 
spot with lace to the side-piece all round the top 
part ; coarse flock, or anything which will keep the 
chains from the horse's shoulder when pulling, 
being employed for stuffing ; but this will not be 
necessary if the body of the collar is well made. 
Others make the side-piece without lining, using 
instead a round piece of leather with canes round 
the rim, covering them with leather stitched on 
both sides to protect the shoulders and collar from 
wet. They are stitched with lace to the collar. 

Experience, however, has demonstrated that 
neither the horse nor the collar is any the worse 
without such a device. In other localities the hous- 
ing and side-piece are cut in one piece — a poor 
imitation of a Scotch collar— and stiffened all round 
with cane ; this involves a great waste of leather, 
and is unnecessary. 




The saddle is another important part of cart har- 
ness. To make a saddle for a horse about 15^ hands 
high will need a tree (Fig. 98) measuring 14 in. 
across the board right through the centre. It may 
have an iron plate for the back chain covering 
entirely the top of the tree, or only partially cover- 
ing it, but with plates at the point and one in the 
centre of the groove. The plate can be removed 
from the first kind of tree when making the saddle, 
but the partial plates are permanently riveted with 
an iron pin. If the board across the tree is very 
long it may be sawn off at each end, but never at 
one end only. Saw off the same length at each 
end ; a 1-ft. board is always long enough. 

The tree can be obtained also in the pattern re- 
quired for nailing housings (leather covers) on the 
bridge of the tree at the top, or with a projection 
running along both sides lower down for nailing. If 
the housings are nailed at the side, the width need 
not be so great as when nailed on the top ; the part 
of the tree above must be covered with thin 
leather, nailed under the housing at the lower edge, 
damped and rubbed down close to the tree and 
nailed at the very top. 

The panel (Fig. 99) can be made when the tree is 
ready. From the middle of each side cut the panel- 
back about ^ in. longer than the boards and 2 in. 
wider than the central width of the board. Leave 
the space between the middle lines of stitches about 
2 in. wider in front than at the back to prevent the 
shoulder-bone of the horse being caught when carry- 
ing a weight. Cut both sides alike, reversing the 
pattern to pair them. Then whip them together 

Cart S addles ^ Reixs^ etc. 87 

along the centre and shorten the panel-back in front 
by cutting from the point, slanting inwards and 
upwards in the fore part. 

Wlien the sides are joined, rub the stitches flat 
and put pieces of leather, about 3 in. square, at 
each end at the positions of the boards when the 
panel is in position ; mark the back of the panel on 
the spot to which the boards reach and then adjust 
the pieces of leather, stitching them across, the 
marks being nailed as nearly as possible in the 
centre of the board. These pieces are for nailing 
the panel in place when completed. 

The panel must now be laid flat on the flannel 
check or linen lining, which is cut about \ in. larger 
than the I ack. As the panel is wider in front, the 
iiiiing m ist be slit in the centre of the front as far 

Fig-. 98.— Cart Saddle Tree. 

as the point where the panel begins to w^iden ; then 
cut a piece of the same material of the necessary 
width in front and narrowing towards the back. 
Whip this piece to the lining, turning dow^n the 
edges of both while stitching. The extra \ in. 
beyond the size of the back is now turned in, and a 
coarse stitch run all round. 

The leather basil facing for the panel is now cut 
about 2| in. wide, then whipped in all round the 
lining, being joined and stitched in the centre of 
each side. Rub the stitches flat, and cut the lining 
down round the back to about 2 in. wide, from the 
centre on each side. Then, when stuffed, the panel 
will be somewhat thicker in the front than at the 
back, and will not sink down and press on the 
shoulder-bones under a load. Now cut about li in. 

88 Harness Making. 

from the front part of the facing opposite the widen- 
ing piece stitched to the lining ; cut it about 4| in. 
long, gradually slanting it out towards the ends, 
and cut about 2 in. at the back in a similar style. 
Tack the facing round the back, centre to centre, 
and both inside out ; run it with coarse stitches, 
about three to the inch, keeping the edges together ; 
it can be either spotted or stitched double. Now 
well damp the back of the panel and the basil fac- 
ing with sponge and water. 

With scissors cut an opening in the lining exactly 
in the centre of the panel and just large enough to 
allow it to be turned inside out ; the cut must run 
along the panel, not across. This opening can be 
utilised for stuffing, but if it is necessary to make 
the cut longer than is required for this, let the open- 
ing be made a little shorter at each end so that the 
slit will be in the centre of the length. Put a line 
on each side of the stitches in the joining of the 
back, about 1^ in. on each side at the back, and then 
gradually widen from halfway to the front until it 
is about 2\ in. on each side of the stitches. Tack the 
lining underneath, making it tight and flat between 
the two lines and keep the slit in the centre, so as 
to have the lining distributed equally on both sides 
of the centre of the joining in the back. •■ 

Now take a wisp of straw, about 9 in. long, and 
wrap it round with hemp, making it firm and slightly 
thicker than a finger ; tie the centre of the wisp 
for about 5 in. and place its centre against that of 
the panel in the gullet at the front, and draw the 
facing tight for the distance between the two lines 
just made. Stitch it from above tightly round the 
wisp with a spot stitch to keep the gullet open and 
from the shoulder. 

The lining must now be spot-stitched on the back 
along the two lines which have been marked, the 
needle being passed up and down through both. 
Leave an opening of the same length as the slit, and 

Cart Saddles^ Reixs, etc. 89 

carry the thread on the leather side from end to end 
of the slit so that the panel can be stuffed through. 

To stuff the panel, place it on the bench in front, 
with the lining uppermost. Drive a stout clout nail 
with a head into each corner, and one into each end 
of the stitches in the side opposite the outer corners, 
the other side of the panel being allowed to hang 
over the bench, and the slit in the lining running 
along the edge of the bench. Having a heap of 
straw cut to the same length as the panel close by, 
and grasping the stuffing stick in the right hand, lay 
a w'isp across the front and push it to its position 
with the stick. Lay another across the back, and 
work it through the hole with the fingers ; then use 
the stick to drive it against the facing inside. 

Fig. 99.— Cart Saddle Panel. 

A third wisp must now be placed in the side 
farthest from the operator, and worked into place 
with the right hand and stick, the left hand being 
employed to keep the straw in position. Wisp after 
wisp can now be added along the front until the 
side is filled, but no more straw is put in the ends 
after the first wisp. 

Beat the panel level and flat with the collar 
mallet, and run a piece of leather of the same width 
as the opening and about 9 in. long inside the slit 
for about half the length between the straw and the 
lining ; this will clear the opening for the flock. 
Have a hamper full of carded flock, and put a thick, 
even layer over the straw, and press it down with ?i 

90 Harness Making. 

stick or seat iron to the edges and corners, making 
it as smooth as possible ; then beat it again with the 
mallet, and use a seat awl to level the surface, feel- 
ing for lumps with the left hand. Work in the same 
way on the other side to complete the panel. 

A dock to fasten the crupper to the saddle is 
placed across from board to board at the back. Two 
l|-in. tinned rings are needed, and the leather must 
be cut 1^ in. wide, and doubled to reach on each 
side as far as half the width of the board. It is 
better to make the dock in four thicknesses, running 
double through the rmgs. Insert these, one at each 
end, and drive a clout nail through each extremity 
and clinch it on a piece of iron ; put one or two nails 
in the centre, the points being shaved to make a 
good joint in the leather. Spot it with white lace, 
or stitch it coarse with strong thread, a row on each 
side. Trim the edges, and black and rub it with 

Take two fine-pointed staples, and, with the dock 
in its place, mark the position with the points of 
the staples. Make holes for these with a gimlet 
half-way between the tree and the end of the board. 
Run the staples through the ring and knock them 
down in the holes until about | in. shows on the 
other side ; turn the points and knock them against 
the iron level with the board, turning in the tips 
a little to enter the board. The dock must be slack, 
with at least the same sweep from board to board 
as there is in the tree. Some harness makers nail 
to the centre of the tree a 2-in. strap, about 10 in. 
long, for fastening the crupper. This device can be 
adopted instead of the dock, and a buckle put on the 
crupper ; with a dock the crupper goes round it. 

The flaps to protect the horse's side from the 
back trace reach from end to end of the boards on 
each side of the saddle. Cut them 9 in. deep more 
or less, according to needs, making them ^ in. longer 
at each end at the top than the boards. Swell them 

Cart Saddles, Reins, etc. 91 

out at the sides from the top and round the corners 
at the bottom, and cut a fancy point in the centre 
of the lower side. 

Now hold them against the board with the same 
length exactly over each end, and mark the width 
of the tree on both sides on the flaps. At the marks 
cut a slit about | in. deep towards the near edge, 
and turn the leather inwards between the cuts in 
the centre. Knock it down between the slits, and 
cut a hole to admit the 1^-in. girth or strap at about 
the middle of the flap on each side just opposite the 
junction of the boards and the tree ; as there will be 
two girths, a strap will run from each end of the 
board. Edge the flaps and holes all round on both 
sides, and make two or three rows round them with 
the race compass ; finish them with a hot iron after 
having blacked the edges. Reverse the cuts in cut- 
ting the flap to catch at the top on the boards, as 
these may not be the same length, back and front, 
over the trees, and there may be a difference in the 
positions of the holes for the girth. 

The girths and straps must be made from good 
leather, the fore girth being 4 ft. 10 in. and the hind 
5 ft. 2 in. long, an allowance of 2 in. being made to 
turn down for the chape. The fore strap must be 
1 ft. 6 in. long and the hind 1 ft. 8 in. ; the width of 
girth and straps is 1^ in. to If in. Edge the girths 
along both sides, and turn down the chapes and 
shape the points of the straps. Leave the best end 
of each girth and strap for nailing to the tree ; put 
two row^s along the edge with a race compass and 
bevel with a hot iron. Stitch the buckles and make 
the loops, adding two running loops ; finish the 
loops with a loop-stick, and then crease them. 
Black the edges before using a hot beveller and cut 
four or five holes in the straps. 

Now take the flaps and place the slit in the centre 
opposite the tree, and turn down the part below, 
thus having about an inch of leather on the board 

92 IIarxess Making. 

under the slit. Drive a saddler's tack in each end 
of the board ; do this gently to avoid splitting. Put 
the shorter strap in front and the longer behind into 
the flap hole from above so as to bring the square 
end out at the top between the flap and the board. 
Adjust both in the same manner, and put four or 
five nails along the edge of the flap and board, 
taking care to drive two of them through the straps 
and flap ; finally put another nail in the centre of 
the strap above the edge of the flap. Add the girths 
on the other side in the same way, and see that the 
straps are on the near side and the girths on the 
off, and that the longer of each set is behind. 

It is not difficult to determine which is the front 
of the tree because in this part the boards rise a 
little and converge towards each other. Sometimes, 
instead of cutting a hole, a leather loop is stitched 
on the flap with an opening wide enough to admit 
straps and girths. 

The girths, flaps, and dock are now put in posi- 
tion. Then place the front of the panel against that 
of the tree, and press it in the centre just against 
the top of the tree. Having the pieces to be nailed 
on the centre of the board stitched to the panel, 
fasten them to this part w4th four or five small 
tacks, making sure that the panel lies close. Deal 
w4th the hind part of the panel in the same manner. 
Some harness makers always run a piece of lace 
from the centre of the panel to the centre of the 
tree in front, where it is nailed close to the tree. 

The next operation is to cut the housings (Figs 
100 and 101) or cover for the saddle top ; the width 
must be 5 in. to 7 in., and the length sufficient to 
reach from end to end over the tree by the side of 
the groove on each side. The length can be mea- 
sured with string. Do not cut the ends square to 
the measurement, but bulge and round them so that 
they are 3 in. more along the centre. Narrow the 
front housing (Fig. 101) slightly for about 10 in. in 

Cart Saddles, Reins, etc. 93 

the centre so that it will rise there, and cut the part 
to be nailed at the back as before, namely about 
6 in. wide on each side from the centre, narrowing to 
a sharp point at the lower end. The back housing 
(Fig. 100) being straight on the outside, begin to 
cut on the side about to be nailed from the corners 
upwards, narrowing an inch from the corner until 
it comes to a point in the middle. This improves 
the appearance and lifts the front from the shoulder, 
the back being thus made to match the entire piece. 
Make three rows around the edges with a race com- 
pass and run the lines deep with a beveller. 

A brass oval or octagon may be placed on each 
corner of the housings at equal distances from the 
edge and end. Put these pieces in position and nail 
them to the tree through the centre ; then tighten 

Fig-. 100. — Cart Saddle Hind Housing-. 

them at each end with the seat awl or other strong 
awl, pulling down hard from the centre and driving 
in a nail on each side while tightening. Drive nails 
all along about 2 in. apart, being careful to make 
the edge of the housing quite flush with the edge of 
the tree so as to obtain the proper shape. The nails 
can then be covered with brass beading | in. wide, 
or a welt of the same width may be nailed down 
with brass or japanned head nails. Seven or eight 
stitches, nine per inch, must now be put in the 
lower part of the housnig at the tour ends through 
the flap, and will thus bind all neatly and firmly. 

For the cart-saddle crupper, the body must be 
cut 2 ft. 6 in. or 2 ft. 8 in. long and 3^ in. to 4 in. 
wide ; cut a semicircle in the centre from the weak 
end, a point about | in. wide being left at each side 

94 Harness Makixg. 

of the semicircle, and then cut an 8-in. piece to line 
with this end. Next cut a piece of leather | in. wide 
and 8^ in. long, shaving the ends thin. Stitch it 
with the edges together so as to make it round to 
within 1^ in. from each end. A cord or bit of leather 
may be placed in the centre to reinforce this ; then 
rub it round and blacken it, and flatten both ends 
out with a hammer ; this is for hanging the saddle 
on a peg. 

The body that was cut first must now be pointed 
at the square end, the width being reduced to about 
2 in., the same cut being made on each side. Race 
it along the sides and ends, then edge, black, and 
run a hot iron over the creases. Now prick it, 
about nine per inch, as far as the termination of the 
lining from the semicircle. 

The ends of the round piece lately made are 
brought together and put under the points, one on 
each side ; place the lining under them, and stitch it 
all round and across the points from side to side 
with a three-cord black wax thread, and trim, black, 
and rub the edges. Cut the lay 1 in. narrower than 
the body and 3 ft. long ; turn it in 10 in. at the strong 
end and beat it flat. Turn it down 2 in. at the other 
end, and cut it slanting down to 1^ in. wide for a 
buckle of the same width ; cut a hole for the buckle 
and run a line across the broad end 2 in. from the 
point, another in the same direction \ in. from the 
end of the bend underneath, and a third 2| in. from 
this part towards the buckle. Edge only the top, 
just reaching over the end of the broad bend ; then 
make two lines of creasing and run a hot iron over 

Inner lines are made about \ in. from the inner- 
most line, from the first cross line to the second, and 
from the third to the buckle. Two spaces are left 
for openings for the hip straps, one in the bend and 
the other in the middle ; black and prick the parts 
to be stitched, four lines between the two openings 

Cart Saddles, Reixs, etc, 95 

and four lines from the other side of the second 
opening in the direction of the buckle. Fix the 
buckle in place and lay it flat in the centre of the 
body, the extremity of the broad end of the lay 
reaching the edge of the semicircle ; tack it down 
and stitch, keeping it well in position while working. 
Stitch coarse or spot along the three marked lines 
near the openings. The body is now finished. 

A pad or panel is next needed. Cut some thick 
felt to the same width as the body, and long enough 
to reach from the point of the semicircle to 2 in. 
beyond the cross line near the buckle ; cover it with 
basil, and coarse-stitch it with a pointed needle 
along the centre. Turn the ends neatly over the felt 
and fasten ; then with stitches put it in place next 
the crupper body. Tack down each end, and run 

Fig. 101.— Cart Saddle Front Housing. 

four or five stitches here and there through the body 
and panel ; make sure that the work is well secured 
at each corner. Cut a hole through the body 
exactly opposite the buckle 1^ in. wide and broad 
enough to pass the strap ; this is made 9 in. long, 
pointing one end and shaving the other. Crease 
and black it, and stitch the shaved end against the 
narrowed end of the body. When finished and 
punched, this w411 go round the dock in the saddle 
and fasten to the buckle on the lay, running down 
through the hole made in the body. 

Sometimes, instead of the opening in the bend, an 
iron dee is employed for the crupper, and the hip 
straps are fastened thereto, a strap about 20 in. 
long being used on each side of the dee. This is a 
matter of taste, but care must be taken that the 
measurement from the second cross line to the ex- 

96 Harness Making. 

treme end of the dee, when the lay is turned down, 
equals what it would be to the extreme end of the 

To make the breeching, cut the body, if possible, 
7 ft. 4 in. long and about 4 in. wide. Turn it down 
to 4 ft. 10 in. long, the strong end less than the 
w^eak ; edge and black, and crease two rows along 
the edges. Shave the ends, and mark a cross line 
about 1^ in. from the centre of the bend on both 
sides and at each end of the body. 

Now cut some pieces 1 ft. long for lining between 
the two marks in the bend and shave their ends ; 
bend them flesh outwards, leaving one end about 
1 in. shorter than the other ; otherwise it will be 
bulky when inside the breeching. Put it inside the 
bend after pricking the second row along the part 
having the leather doubled, and across the bend 
from one cross line to the other. When this lining 
has been tacked in the bend, stitch from row to 
row ; this is the eye for the bridgeband pin used for 
fastening the chain. Trim the edges of the bend, 
blacken, and rub them with tallow and a bone ; 
then tack down the double part as far as it goes. 
If, after being lined, the bend is rather hard, beat 
it with a wooden mallet and stitch the double part 
along both the ends and sides ; then trim, black, 
and rub the edges. 

The body is now ready for the lay, which must be 
of the same length and 1 in. narrower ; edge, crease, 
and black it all along, and make another line with 
the compass \ in. from the inner line of the crease. 
Prick the two innermost lines nine to the inch, and 
turn down the lay at both ends to the same extent 
as the body. Shave the ends and tack the lay in the 
centre of the body, the light end of the lay being 
placed against the heavy end of the body and in- 
versely ; pull it down close over the ends of the 
body and tack it in place. 
Stitch all along the pricked part from end to end 

Cart Saddles, Reins, etc. 97 

to the cross lines, and spot or stitch cross lines, 
making the stitching bulge inwards at the middle to 
the extent of about 1 in. Make a hole with a large 
punch exactly in the centre where the stitches bulge 
inwards, and then, holding the round knife firmly in 
the hand, cut out straight at each side to remove 
a piece that allows the chain to enter and catch the 
pin. Cut another hole in the centre 1 ft. 4 in. from 
the ends by punching a hole 1^ in. farther on ; then 
remove the part between the holes by two cuts, 
allowing space for the l|-in. tug to go through. 

Prepare the two bridgeband pins and four 1^-in. 
buckles to match those on the saddle and crupper. 
The pins have a dee at one end, and at the other a 
screw-thread with nut and washer to fix it in place. 
Two hind tugs 1 ft. 8 in. long must be cut from the 
leather, 6 in. being turned down at each end to meet 
the point ; make a buckle hole in the weak end of 
each, and black, crease, and rub them. Prick the 
tugs from where the chapes leave the bridgeband to 
the loop or to the part w^hicli will have the loop. 
Place the strong end in the hole in the centre of the 
bridgeband from underneath, so that the joint will 
be in the front under the loop, and put a buckle on 
the other end. Make a loop about 2\ in. long and 
sufficiently wide to go round the two thicknesses of 
the strap. Make two rows of creasing, one at each 
end, and stitch the sides loosely together ; then put 
the loop on the tug and stitch the end of the tug. 
Pull the loop over the joint and keep this and the 
stitches out of sight in the centre of the strap. 

A safe must now be cut sufficiently long to run 
from the body of the bridgeband to an inch beyond 
the end of the buckle at the top and \ in. wider on 
each side of the tug. Narrow the bottom to the 
width of the tug and shave it ; round the other end, 
putting a loop on its extreme point in the centre, 
both the ends meeting. Stitch it for about \\ in. 
along both sides through the safe ; put the l-|-in. 


98 Harness Making. 

loop-stick in it, and black, crease, and finish. In the 
next place put the l|-in. iron loop-stick in the long 
loop on the tug and beat it gently until it is quite 
flat and square. Fasten it securely from under- 
neath with about five nails on each side, clinching 
them against the iron loop-stick inside. Crease this 
again with a hot iron and put a fancy stamp with 
the maker's name or a neat creasing in the centre. 
Then put the safes in their places, fixing the loops 
on their ends just against the buckle at the top, and 
stitch the safe along the part pricked from the loop 
to the body of the bridgeband. Make two or four 
rows and strong cross-stitch the tug at the bottom. 
Now run a row of stitches across the top of the tug 
through the safe between the buckle and the loop. 

Make both the tugs alike, and to prepare the tugs 
for the pins the loop is made as before, but it must 
be shorter because the tug with the dee-pin should 
have the same length from the body of the bridge- 
band as the hind tugs. Join the ends and make the 
safes similar, creasing the loops to a similar pat- 
tern ; in fastening the safe to the tug, however, 
stitch a row only across the bottom and top of the 
tug, as it will be too short for more. Two loin straps 
3 ft. 8 in. long by 1^ in. wide must be cut to fasten 
to the tugs and pass through openings in the crup- 
per ; point at each end, crease double at each side, 
edge, black, pass a hot iron along the creases, and 
make six or seven holes in each end to complete 

The parts next to be made are a leading rein, a 
1-in. strap with a billet and buckle at one end and 
a chain with a spring hook, called a cheek, at the 
other. Black and crease the rein, and then stitch 
on the buckles, billet, and chain. 

The billet is the piece of leather stitched under 
or behind the buckle for fastening this particular 
end to any object. Make the billet 1 ft. long. The 
full length of the rein must be about 8 ft. 6 in. ; the 

Cart Saddles, liE/.vs, etc. 99 

chain by which it is fastened to the horse's mouth 
is put through the near ring and secured witli a 
spring hook to the opposite ring. The billet end 
is fastened to the crupper of the leader or the shaft 
horse. This is very useful when horses take fright, 
as the driver may then be able to catch the rein and 
pull them in, though unable to reach their heads. 

The 1^-in. hame straps are simple straps with a 
buckle and loop at one extremity, the other end 
being pointed with holes. Their length is about 
1 ft. 8 in. ; they are employed to secure the hames 
at the top. 

Some harness-makers, for the purpose of orna- 
ment, make, for cart horses, a breast-plate w^iich 
extends from the bottom of the hames and collar to 
the fore girth of the saddle or to the belly-band of 
a leader. It is made of leather, bound with red or 
yellow leather or American cloth, and the sides are 
scalloped, and have two or three face-pieces placed 
opposite the swell in the scallop, these face-pieces 
being a litle narrower than the leather. A narrow 
strap runs from underneath through a hole, catch- 
ing a loop at the top of the face-piece, and then 
down through another hole, and so on to the next. 

When the strap is run all along, fasten the end 
at the bottom, the other extremity being secured by 
the billet, and buckle to the hames at the top. Run 
a strap about 2 ft. long from the base of this scal- 
loped part, and furnish it with a buckle. Put it on 
the reverse w^ay and bring the other end through the 
buckle, fastening it thereto ; stitch the end to the 
bottom of the scalloped part, the other end being 
furnished with a loop through which the girth may 
pass. The part underneath the face-pieces may, 
before being bound, be covered w^ith coloured 
leather to give it a good appearance. 

Now cut the cart belly-band 3 in. wide and 
3 ft. 8 in. long ; narrow it down to 2 in. along a 
length of 6 in. at both ends, and, without bending 

ioo Hara-'ess Awaking. 

the band, cut a buckle hole about 3 in. from the 
point. Make two billets 2 ft. 2 in. long and 2 in. 
wide, and edge, crease, and black everything. Two 
loops must also be made about If in. wide. Prick 
the billet, six per inch, for about 6 in. from the 
shaved end, and adjust the buckle and billet, 
making the latter lap over the buckle for 3 in. lower 
down. Place the loop about 1 in. from the buckle, 
tack all down, and stitch with a six-cord black wax 
thread, twice waxed ; then make two or three 
stitches in the centre of each end. Having opened 
and creased the loops, make four holes in the 
billets ; finally, give them a coat of Harris's liquid 
or composition. 




The bridle and collar for a fore gear or leader 
harness must be made in the way described in the 
previous chapters, and will require no further ex- 
planation here. 

The back-band a (Fig. 102), long crupper r, and 
belly-band d, still need description, however. Cut 
the crupper from good leather 3 ft. 8 in. long and 
5 in. wide, and make a split 9 in. long at the light 
end and another, 7 in. long, at the tail end, leaving 
the points of the slits in front of the full width, 
merely cutting a little out of the corners. Narrow 
the points at the tail end gradually to about 1^ in., 
and cut a little from the sides of each slit. A piece 
of leather must be cut to line a foot or so of the 
tail end, and a piece of soft leather 16 in. by 3^ in. 
for a dock. Damp the dock well and turn down both 
edges in such a manner as to overlap deeply along 
the centre, the ends having been previously shaved 

Now bring both ends together, making both sides 
meet flat, but not with the flat sides together ; then, 
taking hold of the piece on the flat in the centre, 
turn the lower edge inwards and upwards, still keep- 
ing the points together with the other hand. Nail 
each point to a board and keep all parts in shape 
until dry, when the dock will be firm. Edge, crease, 
and black the body, making two rows all round, 
rubbing the edges well and hot-creasing the lines. 
At the tail end prick the second line as far as the 
double runs ; if the dock is dry, put it between the 
lining and body at each end of the slit. Tack it 
down around the lining, and stitch. 

102 , Harness Making. 

A few egg-shaped stitches can be put inside the 
outer stitches through the body and points of tiie 
dock to keep the last in place ; trim the edges, and 
black, rub, and tallow them, and do the same inside 
the edges of the slits. 

Cut two chapes to hold the buckles in front for 
fastening the crupper to the collar straps ; bend the 
chapes down about 4 in., shave one end and point 
the other. Cut a hole for the buckle and prepare 
the chapes for stitching ; then, having two loops 
ready, about 1^ in. wide, tack them in their places, 
keeping the outside of the buckle exactly level with 
the end of each slit and the chapes right in the 
centre. Stitch them down, put a cross stitch on 
each side of the buckle, and shape and crease the 
loops. Now cut the crupper lay 1 ft. 3 in. by 3 in., 
and turn it down for about 1 ft. at the good end ; 
shave the end of the short turn thin, and round the 
other end ; then edge, crease, and black the lay. 

Cut two hip straps h (Fig. 102) 2 ft. by 1^ in., and 
turn them down for 3 in. at the heavy end ; then 
shave the turn down, point the buckle end, and 
crease and black the straps. Attach them to a 
3-in. japanned or tinned dee, one strap on each 
side ; stitch four rows in the double of each, and 
rub and finish the edge. Prepare two more straps 
in the same manner, each 2 ft. 10 in. by 1^ in., and 
stitch them in the middle round part of the dee 
between the two other straps. These are the car- 
rier straps L (Fig. 102) for the stretcher ; the hip 
straps are for carrying the traces. 

The straight part of the dee is now put in the 
bend of the lay and placed on the centre of the 
crupper bod}'^ at the same distance from each side, 
the extreme point of the dee being within 8 in. from 
the points of the tail slits. Tack down and stitch 
two rows \ in. apart all round, eight per inch, with 
three-cord thread ; then stitch the lay coarse, or 
spot it across just to the dee. Some makers put a 

Fore Gear or Leader Harxess. 103 

pad under the crupper as with the cart-saddle 
crupper, running it from the end of the tail slit to 
1 in. beyond the point of the lay. 

Hip-strap tugs k, must be made to buckle to the 
hip straps running from the dee, and for hooking 
in the traces. Having a pair of l|-in. hip-strap 
chains (Figs. 103 and 104), cut the tugs 10 in. by 
1^ in. ; bend them so that the points meet in the 
centre, and cut a hole for the buckle in one end. 
Stitch the points together and put in two narrow 

Fig'. 102.— Set of Leader Gear. 


loops, one to be used to hide the joint, or have one 
single broad loop for the same purpose. Place a 
safe underneath the same as on the bridgeband 
fore tugs, but stitch it instead of nailing. 

In the next place make the tugs for the stretcher 
carrier strap m (Fig. 102), and a strap 1^ in. by 
1 ft. 2 in., and in the last bend a chape, and cut 
a hole for the buckle. Stitch the buckle on with a 
loop and make a running loop and a hole 1 in. from 
tb'^, point of the strap. 

104 Harness Making. 

When placing the carrier straps in position, fix 
a loop on each end of the stretcher and nail the 
ends of the latter, leaving space for the strap to 
pass. Run the strap down through this loop, the 
runner loop having previously been put on the 
strap ; then pass it through the runner loop to the 
buckle, where it is fastened. Secure the carrier 
straps to the same buckle over the carrier straps, 
bringing their points down into the loop. Keep the 
runner loop down by the stretcher to tighten the 
tug and to produce a neat finish. 

The hip straps must now be buckled in the tug 
buckles, the hook fastened to chain traces, and the 
collar straps buckled in the fore-slit buckles. 
Whether the dock is put under the tail is optional, 
because the hip straps, when fastened in the dee, 
suffice to keep the crupper in place. 

The back-band A, to carry the traces, is the next 
part of the harness to be made. It must measure 
about 4 ft. 4 in. from tip to tip, including the termin- 
al chains or the eye, to which the traces are hooked. 
If pipe, the leather must be made 6 ft. 4 in. by 5 in. 
Mark a cross-line 1 ft. from each extremity, and 
another 6 in. from each line, so that there will be 
3 ft. 4 in. between the two middle marks. A piece 
of lining is required for the part between the two 
lines at each end ; this should be of the same width 
as the back-band and 1 ft. 3 in. long. Shave thin 
both tips of the lining and also the ends of the 
turn-in of the back-band ; crease, black, and rub 
the back-band, the crease being made from the ex- 
treme lines right along. Prick the piece from the 
outer cross-line at each end as far as the double will 
run, making five rows with two on each side ; then 
put the lining under the space between the two 
lines so that it is 6 in. over one and 3 in. over the 

A narrow piece, shaved at the inner edge and 
about 6 in. long, is now placed on both ends at 

Fore Gear or Leader Harness. 105 

each side of the 6-in. space to strengthen the eye. 
Stitch the four rows in the 6-in. space, between the 
two lines, with three-cord thread, eight per inch ; 
turn the edges of this part and black and rub them. 
Now turn down the ends, bringing the cross-lines 
dividing the eye exactly opposite each other ; 
flatten the eye so as to bring the parts with the 
lines close together, and tack it in this position. 
Take two 1-in. dees and place a piece of leather 
inside them, on the flat side, for about half their 
width. Put both on each side of the back-band, 
one in each end betw^een the double close to the eye 
and low enough to stitch through the piece of 
leather inside, when stitching the outer row. 

Fig-. 104. 
Figs. 103 and 104. — Hip-strap Chains. 

The dees must be tacked down as well as the 
double ; fasten it right along both sides. The four 
rows at both ends and sides are stitched to the top 
of the double from the cross rows. If desired, a 
fancy wave or pattern can be made instead of the 
two inner lines of stitching. Then stitch or spot 
with lace across the back-band along the cross-lines 
near the eye ; open out the last by placing a thick 
piece of wood, etc., inside. 

Two straps must be cut 10 in. by | in., a buckle 
and loop being adjusted to one end, and four or 
five punch holes made at the other for the dee 

io6 Harness Making. 

fixed at the side of the back-band to pass through a 
link in the trace, and thus secure the back-band. 

Some harness-makers line back-bands from one 
end to the other and stitch them ; others line the 
inner part of the eye with sole leather, and place a 
safe under the eye. This safe is about 1 in. wider 
at the bottom, and narrows dow^n to the same w idth 
as the back-band at the top ; the lower corners are 
rounded, and then it is stitched in from the eye 

For the belly-band d, a pair of 3-in. chains is re- 
quired, and the leather must be cut 3 ft. 4 in. by 
3 in. Turn in 4 in. at the ends, and shave, edge, 
black, and crease them ; then put the leather into 
the openings in the chains, stitch four rows along 
the double part, and spot or stitch across near the 

The set of shaft and chain gear, as described in 
Chapters V. to VIII., is now complete. The chains 
are attached to the shaft harness or jambles to pull 
from the shaft, while the leader harness has only 
a hook for hitching the chain traces. 




In plough gears the ordinary bridle and collar are 
employed. The back-band is made in various ways. 
The method with hooks is taken first. The eye of the 
hook (Fig. 105, p. 109) is 4 in. wide. Cut the leather 
3 ft. 9 in. long and 4 in. wide ; turn down 3 in. at 
each end, and beat the bend slightly with the ham- 
mer to keep it down, and crease it w^th the screw- 
race, making two rows on each side ; mark the 
centre from each end, and draw a line straight 
across at this point, then two lines each 5 in. from 
the centre, so that the distance between them will 
be 10 in. 

Cut two pieces of leather 10^ in. long and f in. 
wide ; dye and crease one side of each piece, having 
previously cut a small piece out of each corner of 
the side being worked. A line must then be drawn 
with the compasses along the centre of this narrow 
piece. Make a mark across the centre, and place it 
underneath the back-band, centre to centre, as far 
as the line just drawn ; tack it down for stitching, 
and place the other piece in the same manner on 
the other side, so that the pieces may be a little 
over both lower lines at each end. This piece is 
called the facing ; the place on the back-band where 
the pieces are to be stitched is pricked out before 
tacking them down. The work of stitching is now 
commenced, care being taken to keep the line close 
to the edge of the back-band ; make the thread of 
three or four cords of coarse hemp. 

Having a l^-in. tinned dee at hand, cut a piece of 
leather 1^ in. by 4 in. ; shave and point both ends, 
then crease, black, and prick them like the side, 
with eight or ten marks per inch. Place the dee in 

io8 Harness Making, 

the centre of this piece, and lay it flat on the back- 
band in the centre, measured from both sides, or 
from the top line to either of the lines below, and 
then stitch, having tacked it down. When plough- 
ing is being done, the rein is run through this dee, 
and there must be one dee on each back-band on 
the opposite side when the horses work in pairs, 
but for a single horse there is one on each side of 
the same back-band. 

The next part to be made is the panel, used for 
preventing soreness of the back of the animal when 
ploughing, brought about by the constant pressure 
in one place. Take a piece of linen, or basil 
leather, 14 in. by 7 in., and lay the back-band on it 
centre to centre, and evenly over both sides ; make 
the spot stitch thus // // // across the back-band, 
and through the linen along the middle line. Then 
the partition between the two sides will show the 
object of these facings, which make the pad slightly 
wider than the back-band, and so ease the horse's 

Having stitched across the centre, turn in the 
lining all round about \ in. ; if, however, the 
material employed is basil, no turning is required. 
Make a pleat at each corner of the end of the 
facing, making both exactly the same length ; put 
another pleat opposite the first, so that the width 
may be the same as that of the back-band and 
facing combined. 

If the panel is basil, the corner is cut off to obtain 
the true length, and then stitched together where 
the cut was made instead of making a pleat. Now 
begin to stitch all round, commencing about 1^ in. 
from the centre on one side so as to have an open- 
ing for stuflSing. Work round along the cross lines 
at the bottom until within 1^ in. of the centre of the 
other side in a direct line from the starting point. 
Spot-stitching is executed in the usual style. 

Stuffing is the next operation, the flock being put 

Plough Harness. 109 

through the opening left on each side of the centre 
line. Lay the back-band flat on the bench and stuff 
each side rather tightly by the aid of the stuffing- 
stick ; the leather side of the back-band is under- 
neath, whilst the openings are near the edge of the 
bench. Smooth well towards the sides, and flatten 
with a mallet, and continue the stitching along the 
opening to the starting-point ; this completes the 

The hooks must now be put in, an operation 
which is performed as follows : Cut two saving 
pieces from a thick, firm face of hide ; good, close- 
grained stuff is wasted on such work as this, the 
best material, as a rule, being that from the face 
of a gear hide. Cut the pieces 7 in. 
long, and if the back-band is to be 
4 in. wide, make the pieces 5 in wide. 
Cut one end slanting to 4 in., of the 
same width as the back-band, and 
shave it. Round ofl" the corners of 
the other end, leaving it the full ^jjf^^'f ^i^ji^f 
width ; black and crease the edges. 
Put the hooks in their places and the saving pieces under 
them about \\ in. lower down than the extremity of the 
hook ; tack them down exactly in the centre. Hav- 
ing marked and pricked the back-band with four 
rows running from the hook upwards to the end of 
the saving pieces, stitch with a four-cord thread, 
nine or ten stitches per inch, and then stitch a 
line across close to the hook to bind all together. 
Now the back-band is in working order. 

The plough back-band, with chains instead of 
hooks, is made in exactly the same manner, but 
when there is only one chain and a bar across in 
the bend to hold it, a hole must be cut in the centre 
of the bend for the passage of the chain. For two 
chains and a bar make two holes ; the saving pieces 
can be made a little narrower with chains, and the 
body of the back-band need not be so long in pro- 

iio Harness Making. 

portion to the length of the chains. As a guide in 
determining the length of the body, whatever may 
be the length of the chains or hooks, it should be 
remembered that the length of the back-band over 
all must be about, 4 ft. 4 in. 

Couplings are also a necessary part of plough 
gear. In some localities only cross-straps are em- 
ployed from mouth to mouth when ploughing in 
pairs. Cut the strap 1 in. wide and 28 in. to 30 in. 
long, turn it in about 1 in. at each end, and make 
a hole for the buckle, and shave the points. Take 
two billets of the same width, 1 ft. long, and trim 
them to a point at one end, shaving the other ; then 
edge back, and crease them ; place the buckle in, 
and then the thin end, 2 in. down at the back of the 
buckle. Put a loop between the chape by the buckle 
and stitch one billet and buckle at each end; 
punch two holes in each billet. 

Sometimes two coupling straps are employed for 
a pair : the straps cross each other from the hames 
of each horse to the mouth of the other. They are 
made to the first style, but longer, being 38 in. in 
length, each with 12-in. billets ; in some cases they 
are made a foot longer than this, the coupling being 
cut into two, one end 15 in. long with a buckle 
and loop, and the other made to buckle on, with 
numerous holes for adjusting the length. This is 
a very convenient method, for when a young horse 
is coupled with an old one, the coupling must be 
shortened on the side of the former animal to keep 
it back until it has learned the ordinary working 




Bits, their patterns and materials, will now be con- 
sidered. Bits are made in polished iron, tinned 
iron, in steel of various qualities, and in nickel. 
Nickel is as expensive as good steel, but does not 

Fig. 100. 

Ficr. 107, 

Ficrs. ion and 107.— Pelham Bits. 

tarnish so soon, and when worn still continues to 
take a good polish. 

Some of the more expensive kinds of bits have 


Fig. 108. 

Fig. 108.— Pelham Bit. Fig. 101>. 
Fis". 110. — Bridoon. 

Fig. 101). 
-Hackney Bit. 

ornamented and silver-plated cheeks ; this is especi- 
ally the case with carriage, military, and riding 


Harness Making. 

Biding bits are snaffles for a single head bridle 
and rein, hence their name snaffle bridles. Pelham 
bits (Figs. 106 to 108) are used for single head bridle 
and double rein, this bridle being known as the 

Fig. 111. 

Figs. Ill and 112. 

Fig. 112. 
Ladies" Horse Bits. 

Pelham. The Hackney bit (Fig. 109) has a bridoon 
(Fig. 110), that is, the bit has only a mouthpiece 
and a ring at each end with a jointed bar. This bit 
is used for the Weymouth bridle, which has a 

Fig. 113. Fig. lU. 

Fig. 113. — Pelham Snaffle with Indiarubber Mouth. 
Fig. 111. — Hacknev Bit with Indiarubber Mouth. 


s are 


double head and a double rein, 
w^ith the two bits last mentioned. 

Bits for horses to be ridden by ladies are shown 
by Figs. Ill and 112. They are on the same prin- 

Birs^ Spuks, Stirrups^ and Furniture. 113 

ciple as those previously mentioned, but are lighter 
and more fanciful, many of them being ornamented 
about the cheeks. The Pelham snaffle (Fig. 113) 
and the Hackney bit (Fig. 114), with indiarubber 


115.— Gig Snafflo. Fig. 116.— Wilson Snafflo. 

mouths, can be had for tender-mouthed horses, and 
double or twisted or smooth-mouthed bits can be 
had for vicious or quiet horses as required. 

Driving bits are commonly gig snaffles (Fig. 115) ; 
Wilson snaffles (Fig. 116) have rings at each end and 
two loose rings on the mouthpiece, one of which is 


Fig. 117. Fig. 119. 

117.— Liverpool Bit. Fig. 118.— G-lobe Cheek Curb 
Bit. Fig. 119.— One-horn Bridoon Bit. 

buckled to the bridle cheek ; the outer ring on each 
side is for the driving rein, but sometimes the rein 
billet is put through both rings at the same time, 
Wilson snaffles can be obtained bar jointed, 



Harness Making. 

tv/isted, or smooth-mouth. The Liverpool bit (Fig. 
117) has a curb cheek, and a straight or solid bar 

Fig. 120.— One-horned Bridoon 
with Indiarubber Mouth. 

Fig. 121.— Gig Curb 

mouth with the mouth bar loose on the cheek. The 
Globe cheek curb bit (Fig. 118) has a ring at the 
bottom of the cheek to which the mouthpiece is 
attached instead of being loose as in the Liverpool 

Fig. 123. 

Fig. 124. 

Fig. 122. 

Fi-. 12; 

Fig. 122.— Buxton Bit. Fvr, 123.— Swivelled Bridoon Bit. 
Figs. 124 and 125. — Breaking Bits. 

bit. A ^' one-horn bridoon " (Fig. 119), with one ring 
at each side and either a solid or a jointed mouth, 

Bits, Spurs, Stirrups, and Furniture. 115 

sometimes has a leather or indiarubber mouth (see 
Fig. 120). 

Gig curb bits (Fig. 121) have the billet of the 

Fig. 126. — Breaking: 

Fio-. 127.— Snaffle with 
Indiarubber Mouth. 

bridle fastened to the top of the cheek, with cheeks 
on the lower side to which the reins are fastened. 

The carriage bit most in use is the Buxton bit 
(Fig. 122), which has a bend in the cheek below the 

Fig. 128. 

Fig. 129. 

Figs. 128 and 129.— Exercising Bits. 

mouthpiece, and a bar across at the bottom from 
one side of the cheek to the other, the solid mouth- 
piece having a port in the centre ; this is a smart 
and very powerful curb bit, but it is being super- 

Fig. 130.— Show or StalHon Bit. 

seded by the Liverpool bit. A swivelled bridoon 
(Fig. 123), as sometimes used with the ordinary 
driving bit, has the bearing rein running from the 
hames down through the swivel and up to a strap 
stitched between the two slit straps of the head- 


Harness MakixG. 

strap. Breaking bits (Figs. 124 to 126) are special 
kinds of patent bits. Fig. 127 is an indiarubber 
mouth snaffle ; Figs. 128 and 129 are exercising 
bits ; Fig. 130 is a show or stallion bit ; and Fig. 131 
is a double-mouthed snaffle. 

Fig-. 131. — Double-mouthed Snaffle. 

On the subject of spurs, very little need be said. 
Besides ordinary pattern spurs (Fig. 132), there are 
officers' regulation spurs (Fig. 133), dress spurs 
(Fig. 134), ladies' spurs (Fig. 135), trousers spurs 
(Fig. 136\ and box spurs. The last-named are 


Fig. 133. Fig. 

132.— Ordinary Spur. Fig. 133. — Officer's Regulation 
Spur. Fig, 131. — Dress Spur. 

fastened to the heel of the boot by a spring inserted 
in a steel box inside the heel. Like screw spurs, 
which screw into a hole in the heel, they may be 
taken off at will. Spurs are made in polished steel 

Bits, Spurs, Stirrups, axd Furxiture, 117 

and brass, some being silver-plated. The saddler 
must have a supply of spur rowels for repairing 


Stirrups may be solid (Fig. 137), three bar or open 

Fig. 135. 
T\'x. 135. 

Fig. 137. 

-Lady's Spur. Fig. 136.— Trousers Spur. 
Fig. 137. — Solid Stirrup. 

bottom (Fig. 138), or they may be of the waving bar 
pattern (Fig. 139). They vary greatly in weight 
according to the purpose for which they are re- 
quired, and are made of polished steel and of plated 
brass or silver. Ladies' stirrups (Fig. 140) are of 
various patterns, some having pads to protect the 

Fig. 138. — Open Bottom Stirrup. 


139.— Wavinsr Bar 

Stirrup. Fig. 140.— Lady's Stirrup. 

foot, others having foot plates of the same shape 
as the foot ; others, again, have slippers (Fig. 141). 
Safety stirrups (Fig. 142) both for ladies and gentle- 


Hakxess Making. 

men are made so that if the rider falls or is thrown 
off the horse the stirrups spring open and release 
the rider's feet. Thus the danger of being dragged 
along the ground by the horse is obviated. 

Ficr. 141.— Stirrup Slipper. 

Fig:. U2.— Safety 

Some particulars will now be given of harness, 
furniture. First the material will be touched upon. 

Japanned iron furniture is strong and durable, 
and has a fairly good appearance when new, but 
the japan soon wears off and allows the iron to get 
rusty. Common iron buckles, covered with leather, 
are also used, but not so extensively as they were 
formerly. The iron soon rusts, and the rust affects 
the leather and causes it to crumble off, giving a 

Fio-. 143. Flo-. 144. Fijr. 145. Fig. US. 

Yir. 143.— Flat Side Wire Front Buckle. Fijr. 144.— Wire 

^Front Bevelled Buckle. Figf. 145.— Bevelled Flat Top 

Buckle. Fig. 146.— West End Bevelled Flat Top Buckle. 

very shabby appearance to the rest of the set of 

Brass furniture is largely used, and it is got up in 
many qualities and styles of finish. The best brass 

BiTS^ Spurs, Stirrups, and Furniture. 119 

does not tarnish nearly so soon as common brass, 
and, of course, has a good appearance when clean. 
Partly covered brass or plated furniture is also 
sometimes used, the buckles being covered with 



1 li 



1 11 

; i 


' 1 






Fig. U7. 

Fi?. 140. 

Fis:. i.-o. 

Fig. 148. 

Fi?. 147.— Spade Buckle. Fig. 14S.— Square Wire Buckle. 
Fig. 149.— Chatham Buckle. Fig. 150.— Flat Top 
Turned-up Buckle. 

leather about half-way up the sides, leaving the top 
and a little of the side bare. This looks very well, 
and is more durable than iron-covered buckles, as 
the brass- or silver-plate does not destroy the 
leather so soon as iron ; partly covered furniture is, 
however, very awkward to clean. 

Buckles are occasionally covered with celluloid ; 
sometimes this only partly covers the brass, alu- 

Fig. 151. 

Fig. 152. 

Fig. 153. 

Fig. 154. 

Fif. 151.— Fluted Buckle. Fig. 152.— Swelled Front Bent- 
leg Buckle. Fig. 153.— Flat Top Cab Buckle. Fig. 154. 
—West End Whole Buckle. 

minium, or gold-plated buckle, and it then looks 
very rich. The celluloid-covered article is made in 
imitation of the leather-covered buckle ; it is dur- 
able, and does not require much cleaning, the occa- 


ITarxess Making. 

sional application of a wet sponge being sufficient. 
Celluloid IS more commonly used in America than 
in this country. It is a very inflammable material, 
and will break if given a hard knock or if allowed 
to fall. 


Fig. 155. Fig. 

155.— Chased Buckle. Fig. 156.— Melbourne Buckle. 
Fig. 157.— West End Square Buckle. 

Nickel furniture looks well, but costs a little more 
than brass. Nickoline, white metal, or Victoria 
metal furniture costs about the same as brass ; all 
three look well when cleaned, but quickly tarnish. 
Plated furniture is used on superior harness ; it can 
be bought in different qualities, being plated with 
silver, white metal, German silver, or nickel. 

Of course, the hames and the buckle tongues are 

Fig. 158. 

Fir. 159. 

Fijr. 160. 

Fig. 161, 

Figs. 158 and 159.— Covered Buckles. Figs. 160 and 161.— 

Part-covered Buckles. 

of iron, plated in whatever metal the rest of the 
furniture is made ; they have to be of iron to with- 
stand the strain to which they are subjected. In 
ordering, it is necessary to state whether plated 

Bits, Spurs, Stirrups, axd Furniture. 121 

h:imes are required of the same material as the 
i'arniture, and whether the latter is brass, silver- 
plated, etc. The pattern of buckle required will 

Fi^. 162. 

Fij?. 164. 

Fig. 163. 

Fig. 165. 

Fig. 162.— Shaft Tug Buckle. Fig. 163.— Burgess's Buckle. 
Fig. 164.— Ball Terret. Fig. I60.— Plain Terret. 

make a little difference in the price ; the wire- 
shaped pattern is the one mostly used. 


Harness Making. 

There are so many patterns in gig and carriage 
furniture that it is impossible to mention them all. 

Fig. 166. Fig. 167. 

Figs. 166 and 167.— Ball Terrets. 

Attention will be directed, however, to some of the 
most useful patterns of buckles. The flat side wire 
front (Fig. 143, p. 118), the w4re front bevelled (Fig. 

Fig. 16S.-Ball Terret. 

144), the bevelled flat top (Fig. 1-15), the West End 
flat top wire (Fig. 146), and the spade pattern (Fig. 

Bits, Spurs, Stirrups, axd Furxiture. 123 

147, p. 119) are all very neat buckles. Square wire 
buckles (Fig. 148) on light gig harness look very 
well. The Chatham (Fig. 119), flat top turned up 

Fig. 1G9. 

Fig. 170. Fig. 171. 
Figs. 169 to 172.— "'lames. 

Fig. 172. 

(Fig. 150), and fluted (Fig. 151), are very strong 
buckles for cab harness, as are also the swelled 
front bent leg (Fig. 152), and side and flat top cab 

Fi?. 173. 

Fig. 174. 

Figs. 173 and 174. — Bearing-rein Swivels. 

(Fig. 153) buckles. The West End whole buckle is 
shown by Fig. 154 ; it looks very neat for any fancy 
harness. " Chased " (Fig. 155, p. 120), " Melbourne " 


Harness Making, 


(Fig. 156), or " West End square/' or " square wire 
(Fig. 157) whole buckles, are all very showy and 
smart when worked up. Figs. 158 and 159 are cov- 
ered buckles, and Figs. 169 and 161 part-covered 

There are many different kinds of shaft tug 
buckles ; that shown by Fig. 162 (p. 121) is a good 
pattern, as is also Burgess's patent buckle (Fig. 163). 

The terrets (Figs. 164 to 168) for the reins to 
run through on the saddle and hames (Figs. 169 to 
172), as w^ell as the bearing-rein swivels (Figs. 173 
and 174) and all parts of the set of furniture, are of 
a pattern conforming with that of the buckles. 

Fig. 175. 

175 and 17G. — Roller Buckles 

Cart-harness furniture may be of galvanised or 
japanned iron, w^ith buckles of brass or white metal. 
All the brass patterns illustrated are known as 
Scotch gear buckles. Cart fancy-brass breeching 
loops may be used instead of leather ones for 
bridgeband carriers and bridle cheeks. 

Fly-terrets are much used as ornaments on the 
top of the bridle between the ears of the horse, 
being either screwed down into a socket or riveted 
in place. Brass face-pieces for the front of the 
bridles on the forehead can be obtained in numerous 

Hame plates, to be put between the tw^o points of 
the hames or jambles above the collar, look very 

Bits, Spcrs, Stirrups, axd Furxituke. 125 

well with a strap across from side to side as a fas- 

Cart hames are either wholly or partly covered 
with iron, and generally take their names from the 
district in which the particular pattern is mostly 
used. Thus there are the Manchester, Lancashire, 
Irish, and Yorkshire hames. Cart bits, together 
with their fittings, are always firmly attached to the 
bridle, and are made either of tinned or japanned 

Fig. 178. 

Finr. 177. 

Fis:. 179. 

Fig. 177. — Hame Clip. Figs. 173 and 179.— Breeching Dees. 

iron. They may be straight and jointed, or 

Chains, such as backhand, crupper, or hip strap 
chains, and watering chains for bridle reins, and 
plough backhand hooks or chains, are all wanted 
in making up a set. Others necessary are : — Leader 
backhand chains, cheek chains for the end of lead- 
ing rein, bridgeband chains, and chains for the 
bellyband, instead of billets, to go round the shafts. 

Riding bridle buckles range in width from | in. 
to 1 in. Stirrup leather buckles are also a special 

126 JIakxess Making. 

line, being from 1^ in. to 1^ in. in width. Saddle 
girth buckles are 1 in. wide. Roller buckles (Figs. 
175 and 176, p. 124) vary in size from | in. to 1| in., 
and are largely used on all kinds of leather w^ork. 
Head-stall or head-collar buckles range in size from 
\\ in. to \\ in. ; some have the collar attached, to 
which is fastened the throat lash. 

The following buckles must also be kept ready to 
hand : — D-buckles for use on small straps ; and 
japanned legging buckles, in sizes ranging from \ in. 
to I in. Head-collar stop squares, for making 
and repairing head-collars, must also be stocked, as 
well as tinned and brass rings of different sizes, for 
making head-collars and for miscellaneous repairs. 
Brass, tin, and plated dees will be necessary for 
making and repairing dog collars, and for holding 
coat straps on riding saddles, etc. They range in 
size from | in. to 1^ in. 

Belt, brace, and garter buckles may often be 
Vvanted, and 2 lb. or 3 lb. of buckle tongues for re- 
pairing old buckles should also be obtained in all 
sizes and strengths. Strong double-pronged buckles 
may be wanted from 1^ in. to 2 in. There may also 
be occasion to use harness buckles of all sizes, 
patterns, and material, saddle terrets, hame clips 
(Fig. 177), various kinds of nails, breeching and 
bearing-rein rings, breeching dees (Figs. 178 and 
179), and rivets for clips, etc. 




The making of a set of gig harness is described in 
the companion volume " Saddlery.'' Van harness 
for heavy work requires a set of furniture, includ- 
ing buckles, hames, and chains, and a van saddle- 
tree. The furniture should be of brass, nickel, or 
silver. Burgess's patent tug buckles (Fig. 163, p. 
121) can be recommended for shaft tugs. 

A pair of winker plates of any pattern (see Figs. 
180 and 181) are necessary to make the winkirrs. 
Beginning with the w^inkers, cut the leather about 
i in. wider than the plate all round, except at the 
back, where it must be | in. wider. If patent 
leather is used, make a line all round the edge, and 
another about ^ in. from it, and race a line across, 
1^ in. from the back part, from one end of the inner 
line to the end of the other ; of course, the other 
lines must not be brought nearer than this to the 
back. Prick along the lines, about eleven per inch, 
and single stitch the inner line all round the four 
sides, through the leather, employing black linen 
thread double, vvith tw^o needles. 

Cut the lining to the same size as the top, but 
lightly stuffed and with little oil in ; put the top 
on it and stitch all round three sides, leaving the 
back open. Put the leather in water and wet it 
thoroughly, and then, having" opened out the two 
leathers with the hand, put a good coat of paste on 
both of the inner sides by the aid of a spoon or 
other convenient implement. 

Push in the winker plate front to front ; but if 
the front is round cornered, it must, of course, be 

128 J:IaK.V£SS MaKIXG. 

put in first. Push in the pieces until they lie 
square in the leather and close to the front 
stitches ; then rub the top and the lining down to 
the sheet iron, being careful to make the lining 
stick well to the sheet. 

Place the winker on a board, lining underneath, 
and tack down each of the hind corners, and if 
necessary, the middle ; then put some paper or rags 
between the winker and the board so as to keep the 
lining up to the sheet. When quite dry and per- 
fectly adhering, remove them from the board, trim 
the edges, finish and polish well. 

The collar is made practically in the same way 
as a cart collar. The f orewale must be turned down 
2 in., that is 4 in. altogether, and instead of whip- 
ping the basil lining in as previously described, cut 
it a little smaller, and stitch it in at the same time 
as the forewale ; tack it down in such a manner 
that when the lining is turned over to stuff the 
body, the stitches will not be visible. Take a 
pattern (see Fig. 96, p. 79) and let the lining 
overlap in the centre of the forewale for quite 2 in. 
Stitching is done as for a cart collar, both for the 
forewale and the drawing in the body, but the last 
must not be so big and clumsy. 

In making and setting the top piece, no stitches 
should appear in front other than the cross row ; 
the top piece must not be joined downwards as in 
the other. Turn in the bottom of the top piece for 
\ in. across, and stitch a line w^ith black linen 
thread \ in. from the edge to keep the turn in its 
place. Damp the top piece, put it across the front, 
and draw it tight, putting a tack in both sides ; then 
make it overlap at the top centre of the back so 
as to obtain a good point to hold the hame strap in 
place ; then stitch all round the hollow^ 

Cut the side piece close along the sides of the 
body to fit tight by the forewale. Then take a 
piece of soft thin leather binding \\ in. wide, damp 

Fa IV AND Cab Harness. 


it, and place it edge to edge with the outside of the 
side piece, tacking it down. Having stitched the 
side piece, putting a small welt at the joint at the 
bottom, and shaving a little round the edges, stitch 
the binding and side piece together around the 
edge with black linen thread, about seven stitches 
per inch. Run a piece of twine along the stitches 
round the rim, and turn down the binding over the 
twine towards the inside, being careful to keep the 
twine in place. Mark a line and prick it, about 
eight per inch, and | in. from the edge ; then stitch 
the binding down below the twine. The last must 
be in one piece with 4 in. or 5 in. to spare at each 

Damp the side piece and adjust it ; tack it with 


- - 

-"- - 

.--■. < 



'."T ^ 


- r .•.- 


Fig. 180. 

Fior. 181. 

Figs. 180 and 181.— ^Yinkers. 

an awl at the bottom and draw it tight at the top. 
Now wax a piece of collar twine, about 18 in. longer 
than is necessary to pass round the collar, and 
begin to stitch the side piece in at the top on the 
off side, running the stitches through the binding 
close to the stitching and through the lining at 
every other stitch. The stitches may be about 2 in. 
long ; draw them tight while working, and be care- 
ful that the side piece is in its proper position, with 
both sides equally level. Fasten the thread after 
stitching the side piece all round. Take hold of 
the hanging ends of the twine which has been run 
along the binding inside, and pull them well to 
draw down the edges of the side-piece along the 
side of the body ; then knot and fasten them to- 

130 Harness Making. 

gether. Draw in the side piece at the forewale as 
with the cart collar, using only thread or very fine 
white lace. 

A layer of old carpet may be placed on the 
stitches next to the body under the side piece to 
give the sides smoothness and roundness. Fasten 
the two side pieces together at the top by stitch- 
ing over from one to the other w4th the collar 

A small housing to cover the top of the collar 
must be cut, almost half-round in shape, but with 
slightly widening points and a V-shaped notch on 
the side next the collar for the points to pass, one 
on each side of the top piece ; bring it down close 
to the forewale. It may be bound in the same 
style as the side piece, stitched fast edge to edge 
with the binding, the latter being then turned and 
a line stitched round a short distance from the 
edges ; about | in. below that another row of 
stitches is made all round. The point on the out- 
side of the body must not project more than about 
5 in. 

Plain or patent leather can be employed to 
make the collar and winkers ; patent leather must 
always be marked for stitching with the race com- 
pass, and a groove cut so that the patent will be 
raced off and the line quite visible. This kind of 
leather, when used to make the collar forewale, 
must be lined v.'ith calico to prevent it cracking. 

The van saddle (Fig. 182) is the next part to be 
made. The tree is a miniature cart-saddle tree, 
with similar boards and groove. The plates to be 
put in the point of the groove where the backhand 
runs through may be nickel or brass to match the 
furniture. Begin vv^ork by fixing the terrets and 
bearing-rein stand hook on the tree. Take off the 
sockets which are attached to the screws, and see 
that they are of the proper length to reach over 
the groove of the tree from side to side ; file them 

Van a. yd Cab Harness. 


down to the width of the tree if they are too long. 
Place the stand-hook socket exactly in the centre 
at the top, and mark its position on each side and 

Cut out a hollow at the mark deep enough for 
the socket to enter and lie flush with the surface, 
and drive a small screw through each socket into 
the tree. The terret sockets are fixed in the same 
manner, being sunk level and screwed down, about 
3^ in. lower than the stand hook on each side. 

Cut two pieces of thin leather, either plain or 
patent, to the same shape as each side of the tree 

Fig. 182. 

Fig. 182.— Van Saddle 

Fig. 18J. 

. Fig. 183.— Van Saddle Flap. 
181.— Van Saddle Panel. 

and about 1 in. larger each way. Damp them and 
make a nick at the top of the boards in the leather 
so that the centre of the piece will turn down 
underneath. Tack each end of the leather to the 
board close to the tree, then pull it tightly along 
the entire surface of the side over the top, nailing 
it here and there. Level it down on the surface 
of the tree, and tack the centre part between the 
boards underneath the tree, pulling it tight and flat 
over all parts. 

To make the flaps, cut out a paper pattern as a 
guide (see Fig. 183), making it wider at the top 

132 Har.^e^s MAicim. 

than at the other parts and slightly raised in front. 
The flaps must reach down from the lower part of 
the groove in the centre for about 15 in., swelling 
slightly at the sides and gradually narrowing to 
about 2 in. at the bottom. The patterns may also 
be cut straight without the swelling sides, but in 
both styles they must rise in front more than at the 
back ; as they are cut in two pieces, one for each 
side, this can easilj^ be managed, because when 
they are joined at the top this part will stand out 
prominently in front. 

Some flaps are made with stout firm leather, 
others are lined. In the first case, make two rows 
along the sides with the race compass and bevel 
deep with a hot bevel ; but patent leather, instead 
of needing the race compass, has tallow rubbed 
along the part to be creased and the lines are 
marked with the compass ; then run a warm 
beveller deep along the marks, being careful that 
it does not cut the leather. 

When patent or plain leather is lined, use the 
race compass and prick the grooves for stitching. 
When stitched (or made without lining), cut and 
polish the edges well and join them with a stitch at 
the top ; place a piece of leather over the joint at 
the front about 1^ in. wide, and stitch it on both 
sides of the joint and across the front ; then shave 
it thin at the side next the tree. A dee, of brass or 
other metal, is placed on the outside for fastening 
the crupper. Cover the joint at the back with 
another piece of leather, turning it down on the 
outside and shaving the other end thin. These 
pieces should be long enough on both sides to pass 
under the tree when the flaps are nailed. On these 
the tree is placed centre to centre and front to 
front, and a line is marked along the sides of the 
tree from board to board on the leather. 

Make a mark at the lower side of the board to 
indicate the width of the tree there, and the width 

Van and Cab Harness. 133 

of the wood on both sides of the groove. Note 
that this must be marked at the bottom side of the 
boards, four marks being made at each end of the 
tree, outside and inside the wood on each side of 
the groove. 

At this point take away tlie tree, and cut a slit 
from the outer lower mark to the point of the one 
running along the side of the tree ; there will then 
be two slits of the width of the board, one on each 
side of the tree. Now cut upwards from each of 
the two inner marks at the bottom, for the length 
of the other cuts and equal in width to the wood, 
on both sides of the groove. Then cut across the 
top of each incision from side to side ; there will 
now be one cross cut and four cuts upward, and a 
portion along the centre. Cut the middle piece 
between the four slits at each end about 1^ in. from 
the bottom, and shave the points ; now cut the two 
narrow strips at each end to the same length. 

The middle piece, unless there are plates, is 
nailed along the groove with the narrow cuts under- 
neath. Place flaps over the top and make the 
edges of the centre slit meet at the centre of the 
tree below. Nail the flaps down along the edge 
of the tree, putting four or five extra nails opposite 
the crupper loop in its chape. When there is no 
plate, nail the centre piece in the bottom along the 
groove ; put the narrow pieces down and nail them 
with the brass beading, making sure that the part 
of the flaps over the boards runs close to the tree ; 
fasten it to the boards with four or five tacks. 
Turn the centre piece down like the narrow ones, 
and nail it to the board at each end. 

Cut a top cover of strong leather of the same 
width as the tree and to reach to within 2^ in. from 
the bottom, so that there will be an opening for the 
backhand ; crease it across both ends and bevel the 
creases with a hot iron, or line both ends for about 
2 in, and shave the inner side ; then make two rows 

'i3'4 Harness Making. 

of stitching across the points. Place it on the tree 
in its proper position, and give two or three light 
taps with a hammer opposite the three openings 
for the terrets and stand hooks in the sockets ; thus 
the size and position of the holes is marked on the 

Holes, of the same dimensions as the socket 
holes, must now be cut in the cover, and this nailed 
dow^n on both sides of the tree, keeping the holes 
in the leather exactly opposite those for the 
sockets. A strong nail must be driven into each 
corner so that it will not be prized up by the back- 
band. Take a piece of beading long enough to run 
along the top on each side and go down underneath 
through the opening opposite the narrow cuts in 
the bottom ; nail the beading on the side of the 
boards or under them, securing in the same way 
the narrow turned-down strip. The beading should 
lie close to the leather along the top of the tree ; 
drive the nails for the beading with a wooden 

The saddle is now ready for the panel (Fig. 184, 
p. 131), the back of which must be cut to the same 
size as the flaps ; it must not reach quite to the bot- 
tom ; let it end, say, 2 in. from it. Basil can be 
employed as material, and if this is light, a piece of 
linen can be pasted inside, or a narrow slip may be 
pasted along the edges. When dry, see again that 
it is of the same size and shape. The facing must 
be cut about \\ in. wide, and of the same length as 
the sides of the panel ; it may be in patent or plain 
leather to match the flaps. 

When the material is not long enough it may be 
cut into two parts and joined at the centre ; it is 
then tacked along the edges and stitched for about 
six inches. Rub the joint down as flat as possible. 
Take some blue serge lining or collar lining and lay 
it out smooth on the bench, and place the panel 
back on it inside out ; with hemp, tack it along 

Van and Cab Harness. 135 

the sides to the lining, cutting the latter to the 
same shape as the back, but wider by 1| in. or more 
on both sides at the top. The lining then tapers 
to exactly the same width as the base at the ex- 
treme point. Narrow the lining at the gullet and, 
just at the back in the centre opposite the opening 
to be left, turn it in about \ in. ; run a stitch to 
keep it down, and then w^iip it in with the facing " 
from end to end and across the bottom, employing 
black linen thread and a pointed needle and 
thimble. No facing is placed across the bottom. 

Now turn the panel inside out through the open- 
ing at the top ; the joint is not stitched right across, 
only two or three stitches being used at each end. 
Some piping is now needed to run round the facing 
to make both sides of the panel front stand out 
round and straight. 

Sometimes the facing is made of straw whipped 
round with hemp until it is hard and round ; some- 
times with damp brown paper rolled with both 
hands on the bench ; or a simple cord of light twist 
may be employed, and, in America, cane. In har- 
ness of this description, cord will suffice ; it may be 
covered with brown paper to about | in. in dia- 
meter. Place it in the facing through the opening 
at the top, making it reach to the bottom at each 
side but not across. Turn the facing tightly over 
it and begin to spot from the back, the stitches 
being small and even on the lined side. 

While w^orking, the panel should be kept flat on 
the bench, the lining being uppermost and being 
stitched close to the facing with a quilting needle 
and thimble. Then place the lining flat and even 
at the top, parting it alike on both sides and run- 
ning a line of cross stitches from side to side on 
both sides of the joining at the back, to about l\ in. 
apart at the back and about 4 in. in the front. 

The panel is now in two compartments. Cut 
two openings across it, one on each side, below the 

136 IIai^.v£ss a/ a king. > 

line of stitches just made, and one to cross them ; 
then stuff the panel with carded flock through 
these openings, the stuffing-stick being employed 
for the purpose. Fill it level from top to bottom, 
but not too full. 

Next mark, say, six cross lines, about 1^ in. 
apart, from the bottom of the panel towards the 
top, a rule being used as a guide. Take a long 
three-cord black hemp thread made with beeswax 
and quilt it, making four stitches or so in each line ; 
use a thimble and quilting needle. Keep the 
stitches in a straight line both downwards and 
crosswise, and when the last line is reached, make 
two stitches from back to front, thus leaving the 
last line half finished. Now flatten it over the 
stitches and stuff the top to the requisite thickness, 
taking care to make it firm, though not hard, other- 
v/ise it will become veiy thin when pressure bears 
on it. Place the panel to the centre of the tree and 
flaps, and put a tack on each side at the top to 
retain it in this position. Some harness makers 
run five or six stitches through the flap and panel 
here and there, others spot them all the way along ; 
but the best method is to put the panel in with 
copper wire. 

Stitching or spotting might do for common 
work, small stitches being put in spotting on the 
flap side and about Ij m. apart below. The 
stitches, whether spotting or stitching double- 
handed, should run out in the hollow between the 
facing and stuffing below. Keep the facing even 
along the edge of the flap a little outside rather 
than underneath. 

To fasten a panel, cut the wire into pieces about 
5 in. long, and with a bent awl cut holes underneath 
the flaps close by the outer row of stitches, all at 
the same distance from the outside. Then place a 
piece of wire in each, and, if for a gig or cab saddle, 
nail the panel in the centre on both sides ; but in 

Van and Cab Harness. 137 

the case of a van saddle, nails need not be em- 
ployed ; simply wire it all round. Keep the panel 
right in the centre and fasten a wire in the top, on 
each side, by cutting a hole with the bent awl for 
each point of the wire just below the facing. Put 
one wire in each hole and push the panel close to 
the flap ; then twist the wire on the panel side with 
a pair of pincers till the panel is pulled tight to the 
flap. Give the wire a sharp twist with its points 
together, and cut them within \ in. of the panel ; 
turn down the points and press them out of sight 
into the hollow between the panel and the facing, 
rapeating the process along both sides with the 
wire about 2^ in. apart. 

A strap and a girth are needed to fasten to the 
bottom of the flaps. Cut the girth 2 ft. long and 
2 in. wide, and have a lay to put on about 9 in. by 
\\ in. Make a buckle hole in the lay so that the 
edge of the buckle will be level with the end of the 
girth, as the chape is not to be turned down, but 
is stitched on the flat. 

A strong strap must now be cut 18 in. by l\ in., 
rounded at one end and shaved at the other, and 
another piece of leather 2 in. by 4^ in., with one 
end shaved and the other narrowed to 1\ in. ; edge, 
black, and crease both. Tack the lay on the girth 
with the buckle level to the end, and narrow the 
girth to the width .of the lay at the point ; then 
place two loops beyond the buckle and stitch the 
lay. In the next place, the shaved end of the strap 
must be stitched to the 4^-in. piece, the strap being 
placed within 1 in. of the broad end. Finish the 
loops, punch the straps, and stitch them, the strap 
on the near side and the girth on the off side at the 
base of the flaps, the stitches running across and in 
a half circle from corner to corner. 

The winkers by this time will be dry and fit to 
work as part of the bridle. Straighten the outside 
— that is, the part to be stitched — if it has got a 

138 Harness Making. 

little out of shape in wetting and nailing. Rub 
the other edges with sandpaper and give them a fine 
polish ; then shave the side for the cheek. 

Having got four |-in. buckles ready for the 
cheeks, cut the latter 2 ft. 9 in. by | in. and measure 
1 ft. from the better end, marking it across for a 
billet. Now round its point and measure 8 in. from 
the first mark ; turn it down there, and again turn 
it down 8 in. from the bend. Make a buckle hole 
in each bend, and edge, black, and crease along the 
billet part. Make a groove with a round knife or 
grooving tool underneath on the billet side from 
the cross mark to within \ in. of the top bend, the 
depth of the groove being about half the thickness 
of the leather ; open it out with the point of a 
blunt compass or anything suitable. 

The buckles can now be fixed, one in each bend, 
and the winkers can also be placed between the 
cheek up to the buckles at the top bend and level 
with the outside. Cut a small nick just opposite 
the projection of the buckle tongue so that the 
winker will ascend on the top end close to the 
buckle. See that the point of the turn-down run- 
ning from the base bend is cut level with the 
bottom of the winker, and run a stitch through 
both, making the point fit tightly in the hollow 
between the lower buckle and the winker. 

Place three tacks on the outer side to keep the 
edges together in their places. Make one loop for 
each from medium heavy winker brown loop 
leather about 7 in. by If in. ; damp it well and place 
it in half the width of the cheek on the inner side 
and stitch along the groove. Adjust the two sides 
in the same manner, reversing the winker to pair 

The loops having been damped before being at- 
tached, place a loop-stick | in. wide in each loop ; 
then knock them square and level to shape. Black 
them with soda and dye, dry partially with rag, and 

Vajv and Cab Harness, 139 

rub and polis^h well with a bone, making them shine 
brightly. Now trim the underside of the cheek, 
round the square edges, and polish. Apply a coat 
of Harris's harness liquid both to the loops and to 
the edges ; rub them well with the palm of the hand 
and then with a little tallow, after which they must 
be again rubbed w4th a rag. 

The loops are nov/ ready for creasing and check- 
ing, but in the first place make sure that the loops 
are in condition ; if too dry, they cannot be creased 
deeply enough, and if too wet the bevels and marks 
cannot be polished. Test with a hot crease and 
then hold them near the fire a little while ; finally 
rub with the hand until they are dry enough. At- 
tention must also be given to the temperature of 
the tools when heated in the fire, candle, or gas. 
Therefore, keep on the bench a small quantity of 
water into which to dip the heated tools ; if the 
beveller or checker hisses in the water it must be 
kept there until this ceases. 

Now with the screw crease or compass make two 
or three lines across each end of the loop, and two 
rows near each other along the edges on the face. 
Trace out the design on the surface between the 
outer lines, namely diamonds, single arrov/ point, or 
double arrow points, etc. Having warmed the 
beveller, mark deeply the cross and outside lines, 
polish them, and then mark the outer lines of the 
design with the beveller on the surface of the loop. 

The space between the outer lines of the design 
and the straight lines at the edge and sides must 
now be marked with the warm checker, which may 
be fine or coarse, according to the style of work ; 
the design also will vary with the fineness or coarse- 
ness of the work. The checking being finished, 
run the beveller along all the outer lines in the 
design and the straight line, to smooth down the 
checker marks running to the bevelled lines and to 
give boldness to the work. 

140 Harness Making. 

The noseband is made by cutting the leather 
2 ft. 8 in. long by 1 in. ; it must then be marked 5 in. 
from the point and again at a distance of | in. from 
this mark ; then a third mark is made 13 in. farther 
on, and a fourth | in. from the last mark. Turn 
down 2 in. of the end marked last for the buckle ; 
take \ in. from each end and each side as far as 
the cross mark nearest the ends. Make a buckle 
hole and shave, bend, and round the other end for 
the point. Cut another piece for a lining, taking 
the first as a pattern, and then thin the edges 01 
both, slanting from the middle of the strap on both 
sides, but do not thin the |-in. space in either 

The first piece of leather that v/as cut with a 
buckle hole can now be damped ; then with a groov- 

Fig. 185. — Chain and Leather Gig Front. 

ing board and hammer handle a groove is mado 
along the full length, not including the two |-in. 
spaces. Now cut a hole in the outer side of each 
of the cross lines, marking two spaces, and cut twa 
loops about I in. by 2 in. Shave the points, damp» 
and put one end in each hole over the |-in. space ; 
beat the points a little to flatten them to the 
leather, and leave sufficient space for the billet to 
pass between the loops and the noseband. 

Crease the noseband on both sides from end to 
end, i in. from the edge, and, if required, another 
line can be made at the same distance farther in 
from opening to opening in the centre only. Prick 
the lines all along except opposite the openings, 
fine or coarse, according to the style of work, and 
then put the lining underneath and the buckle in 
its place. Tack it here and tbere with fine tacks^ 

Fan and Cab Harness. 141 

and with three-cord fine hemp stitch from end to 
end, around the point, and across at the end of 
the centre loops to fasten the loops near the 

Stitch a second line if needed, and then the 
buckle chape from underneath, and put in one or 
two loops. Trim the edges, sandpaper, black 
them, and polish ; then place sticks in the loops and 
finish, making four holes in the short end. 

The next part of the harness to be described 
is the front or forehead band. Begin work by 
cutting it 21 in. by 1 in., bend it dowm to pass easily 
round a 1^-in. strap, and then mark it across the 
length of the required opening. See that there are 
13 in. between the two cross marks in the centre 
and sufficient to stitch down the ends beyond the 

Fig. 186. — Chain and Leather Gig Front. 

openings ; shave the points and stitch down the 
ends from the cross Imes to the points. 

It can be covered with fancy coloured or striped 
cloth or leather and herring-bone stitched along 
the centre underneath, making a cross at each end ; 
or a chain front (Figs. 185 to 187) can be employed. 
In the last case a piece of patent leather must be 
cut of the same length as the front from one cross 
line to the other and of the same width as the fore- 
head band ; adjust the chain and stitch along its 
centre, taking the thread out at one side of the 
chain, and running it through the link and down on 
the other side close by the chain, and so on through 
every link ; at each end through the link joint m.ake 
a little chape and stitch double through it when the 
patent leather is being adjusted to the forehead 

142 Harness Making. 

Now mark a line along the edges of the patent 
leather outside the chain and prick it fine, laying 
on the patent leather from opening to opening, and 
stitching double with beeswaxed linen thread and 
a fine awl. Stitch the patent leather across also 
at the ends, catching the above-mentioned little 
chapes. Then pare, sandpaper, black, and well 
polish the edges. 

To make the head-piece, cut the leather l\ in. 
wide and 1 ft. 10 in. long ; slit it 6 in. at each end, 
and edge, black, and rub it well, and then crease 
it with a hot creaser close to the edge and at both 
sides of the slits. Now cut a |-in. chape, long 
enough to clasp the buckle and the headpiece and 
to reach no farther than the far side. Make a 
buckle hole in it, and edge, black, crease, and 
finally prick it. 

Cut a loop \ in. wide, trim it and place the chape 
in the buckle, tacking it exactly in the centre of 
the head-piece, after having cut a small nick 
exactly in the centre for the projecting tongue to 
enter. Stitch it in place, running a line across at 
the end opposite the buckle ; then make four holes 
in each of the slits. 

The winker strap is made as follows: Cut it 
from stiff leather 1^ in. by 13 in. long and re- 
move the centre piece with a punch at the top of 
the slit, the last being 7^ in. by*^ in. Beginning at 
the slit, gradually narrow the other part to | in. 
wide to run to the head-piece buckle at the top. 
Crease, black, and rub well with a hot iron and 
make three punch holes at the pointed end. Take 
the winkers and open a small slit by cutting the 
stitches between the leather at the top corner in 
the front ; put a ^-in. length of the slit in each 
winker and stitch the points there firmly. 

All that is now required to complete the bridle 
is the throat lash ; make it 2 ft. 3 in. by | in. and 
turn it down at each end to 1 ft. 8 in. ; then make 

Van axd Cab Harness. 143 

buckle holes in the bend and shave the points. 
Edge, black, crease and rub well, prick the bend, 
and put in the buckles with the bearing-rein 
swivels, one at each extremity. Having made a 
loop or two between the buckles and swivels, stitch 
down the chapes, going below the swivel suffi- 
ciently to keep it in place. 

Put the bridle together by passing the ends of 
the front piece into the rosette loops, and placing 
one slit of the head strap on each side of the rosette 
loops at both ends of the front piece, the centre 
buckle at the top pointing in the same direction as 
the front. Secure the winker strap at the top 
buckle, and both inner slits of the head strap in 
the top buckle of the cheeks ; then pass the billet 
through the noseband opening. Make sure that 
the noseband is buckled on the near side, and then 

Y'lg;. 187. — Chain and Leather Gig Front. 

put the billets through the cheek of the bit and up 
again through the loops on the outside of the nose- 
band and cheek buckle. 

The throat lash must now be buckled on the off 
side and the strap passed through the loop on the 
near side ; the noseband being buckled, the bridle 
is finished. It may be coated with liquid blacking 
or composition before it is put together, and the 
buckles and rosettes can be cleaned with paste 
and washleather or a clean soft rag. 

To make a bearing rein a middle piece must be 
cut 6 ft. by I in. ; finish it and bend 2 in., making 
it ready for a buckle. Shave the end thin and cut 
it to a point ; if two buckles are employed both 
ends must be prepared alike, but with only one 
buckle one end must be pricked for stitching to the 

144 Harness Making. 

ring of the round part. Cut the round parts If in. 
wide and 2 ft. long ; turn them down and narrow 
them to I in. at one end, the turned-down part 
being 2 in. long. Turn down about 1 in. at the 
other end and prepare it for a buckle, shaving the 
point thin ; then damp round the central part, 
bring the edges together, and cut a groove on each 
side to sink the stitches. 

With a blunt point, open the groove before 
stitching and have a piece of cord thick enough to 
fill the inside and 1 in. longer at each end ; unravel 
it at the ends and thin the strands by pulling off 
some of the material with an awl. Run one end 
of the cord through the bearing-rein ring for an 
inch and whip it round with waxed hemp so that it 
will be secured there. 

Open the strands at the other end and put half 
of them on each side of the buckle tongue at the 
part which will be in the leather ; whip this again 
fast to the buckle and see that it is of the right 
length inside the round to reach tightly from the 
buckle to the ring w^hen in its place. It is now 
necessary to put the ring in the long bend and the 
buckle in the short one. 

Now cut a billet 9 in. by | in., and after shaving 
one end thin, round the other and prepare and 
crease it. Put it in the billet and a loop, and stitch 
the other end fine in the ring ; stitch the round 
along the groove, being careful to have the thread 
in the centre of the groove at both sides and to 
catch the points of the turn-down at the ring and 
the point of the billet in the other end, between 
the edges of the round part, making two or three 
stitches in each, thus joining them firmly with the 
round part. Then with the spokeshave trim them 
round and neat, rub with coarse glasspaper, and 
finish with fine ; close the edges of the groove well 
over the stitches and try to make it look as much as 
possible like one round, solid piece. 

Fa.v and Cab Harness. 145 

After well blacking and polishing the bearing 
rein, give it a coat of liquid blacking, polishing by 
sharp rubbing ; finish neatly around the ring and 
buckle, crease the loops, and make one or two holes 
in the billets. 

Xow prepare the middle part. When there are 
two buckles, begin by punching a dozen holes 
within 9 in. of each end ; with one buckle of course 
only one end is punched. Five running loops large 
enough to pass over the strap double must now be 
made, as explained. When they are finished and 
polished, put the two points together through one 
of the loops and pull that loop to within 2 in. from 
the top ; fix a buckle on each side and two loops 
after each buckle with the right side out. Now^ run 
the points through the rings to the buckle and put 
a chape in place, fastening the buckle in about the 
sixth hole from the end and leaving the chape un- 
stitched. Then pull one loop over the chape close 
to the buckle and the other loop down to the ring 
on each side. 

To make the crupper, cut out the body 2 ft. by 
If in. and slit it for 8 in. at the strongest end ; 
taper the other end to 1^ in. wide and cut a l^-in. 
billet 3 ft. 9 in. long. Shave the strong end thin 
and round the other ; cut the lay 16 in. by \\ in. 
and shave one end, rounding the other. The 
points of the slits and the end of the body must 
also be shaved, the slit points being tapered. Black 
and crease them all, only the top of the lay being 

Place the round end of the lay close to the slit 
end, in the centre of the body, and 4 in. from the 
round end make a deep cross line followed by three 
other lines at intervals of 2 in., and at the same 
distance from the fourth line cut a hole for the 
buckle ; then put an awl at each corner formed hy 
the cross lines into both lay and body so as to make 
a mark visible below ; there will thus be a guide for 

146 Harness Making. 

use when stitching underneath to indicate where to 
begin and end. 

Cut a groove from the shaved end of the body as 
far as the first awl mark below, then from the 
second to the third, and finally from the fourth to 
a distance of about 1 in. towards the point of the 
lay; this groove must be made on the under-side- 
Cut through one half the thickness of the leather 
at a sufficient distance from the edge to catch the 
lay on both sides in stitching. ]Now adjust the 
buckle and lay once again, and then trim four loops 
about f in. wdde and place one before the buckle, 
a second on the other side before reaching the first 
opening, another between the two openings, and, 
finally, the fourth beyond the lash. 

The lay must be stitched in from the underside 
with double waxed thread, a cross stitch being made 
at the corners of each opening and the thread being 
brought straight over the opening to the opposite 
corner without cutting. Stitch over the loop at the 
slit end, but no farther, the remainder being 
stitched fine round the end from above. It is better 
to stitch the crupper lay from below because it will 
then be smoother and the stitches will not be so 
likely to rub the hair off as when they are on the 
surface, there being much friction at this part. 
Having placed the stick in the loops, finish with the 
hot iron, making a running loop for the billet. 

The dock (Fig. 188) that is placed under the tail 
is made of soft close-grained leather, 1 ft. 3 in. in 
length, and tapered from the centre on each side 
to about I in. when doubled over at the points. 
Groove it carefully along the edges at a slight dis- 
tance therefrom, and stitch it loosely with three- 
cord fine hemp, about six per inch, merely pulling 
the stitches home ; then damp it well. 

Having a pint of whole linseed near at hand, 
drive a nail through one end to close the opening, 
and then, placing the linseed on the apron, scoop 

Fan and Cab Harness. 


it in with the open end and ram the dock tight from 
end to end with a stick or iron rod till it is filled. 

Fiff. 188. 

Fig. 189. 

Fio-. 188.— Crupper Dock. 

Fig-. 189. — Breeching, etc. 

Fig. 190.— Back-band. 

Fig. 191.— Shaft Tugs. 

Fig. 191. 








'. I 


'0 ; 

c 1 

Fi-r. 190. 

Take one end in each hand and twist the piece to a 
round shape, endeavouring to bring the stitches on 

148 Harness Makisg. 

the lower side. Knock the two ends with nails in 
them into a flat board, and keeping the centre on 
the board, raise both sides and draw them as close 
together as possible with a piece of soft leather 
tied around them. Then allow them to dry and 
trim the stitched part and sand it, rounding it with 
the other parts ; polish well, thin the top sides of 
the points, and knock them flat with the hammer. 
Stitch one to each slit of the crupper body for 
about I in., finish the edges, and put about a dozen 
holes in the billet. 

To make the breeching (Fig. 189), cut the leather 
7 ft. 6 in. by If in., and turn it in 4 in. at the better 
end, so that it will be 3 ft. 8 in. long when double. 
If the lower part is too long, cut it off, allowing 
about 2 in. for splicing, and shave both ends. Both 
edges must now be shaved on the inside of the top 
and bottom so as to slant outwards ; damp the top 
from one bend to the other. Kound it on the large 
groove of the grooving board, crease it along both 
edges, and prick it eight per inch. If the bend 
seems too weak for the rings these can be lined. 
Cut a strip of leather or an old rein, 1 in. wide, 
and shave it round along the edges and at the 
ends ; it must be long enough to run from ring to 


Having prepared the rings and breeching dees 
(Fig. 178 and 179, p. 125), cut the bearers from 
good leather, 10 in. by | in. ; turn them down so 
that the points will meet, and flatten the bends. 
Prepare one end of each for the buckle, and cut a 
groove along the lower side, where there is no 
joint, and open it. Place the buckles and dees in 
two bearers and the rings and buckle in the two 
remaining, joining them on the side under the loop. 
Stitch the ends together, making them meet ex- 
actly in the centre of the bearer. 

After edging the end bends, black them, because 
this would be troublesome work later; then cut 

Fan and Cab Harness. 149 

four loops, 3^ in. by if in., blind-stitch them, and 
finish them like the others. Make the pattern match, 
finish the back of the bearer, and close the groove 
well. A ring must now be put in each end of the 
breeching, which is then tacked in place for stitch- 
ing. Place the lining lately cut in the centre to 
i-aise and strengthen it, and then stitch along both 
the sides with three-cord coarse hemp ; reserve an 
opening about G in. from the ring for the bearers, 
but do not fix these in it until the body has been 
stitched and trimmed. 

Some fancy style of stitching can be run along 
each end from the ring about 6 in. when the straight 
lines have been stitched along the sides, or have 
tw^o extra straight lines instead of fancy w^ork, 
bringing the lines to a point at 6 in. from the ring, 
or again make four rows all along the breeching. 

The body being well trimmed and finished, put 
both bearers in on the same side, one at each end 
where the opening w^as left. Before this, how^- 
cver, put a small piece of leather inside to fill the 
hollow square in the breeching dees ; stitch this 
firmly in place. 

For a hip-strap to match the breeching, cut a 
strap 4 ft. long and a little more than double the 
width of the buckles on the bearers ; slit it for 16 in. 
at each end, each slit being the width of the bearer 
buckles, and if it is altogether too wide, the w^aste 
should come off the centre. Then edge, black, and 
crease it neatly and put eight holes in each end. 

The breeching straps to go round the shafts 
must be cut 3 ft. 3 in. by I5 in., and w^hen the light 
ends are turned down, are 2 ft. 6 in. long. Round 
the point, and shave that of the turn over ; then 
prepare the bend for the buckle, and edge, black, 
and crease. 

Cut four strong loops about | in. wide, and 
having neatly finished them, prick along about 3 in. 
from the buckle on the low^er side. Tack on the 

150 Ji/ARJ^£^S MAKINC. 

two loops, one near the buckle in the usual posi- 
tion, and the other close to it but in the reverse 
position to turn under the strap. Stitch them with 
strong thread, and, having finished them, bend the 
strap from the loop to the end of the underpiece 
and run a dozen stitches on each side at the point. 
Bend it so that w^ien in position in the ring the 
parts will be even ; if stitched without bending, the 
lower part will pucker. Finish the loops and put 
six holes in each strap. 

The back-band (Fig. 190, p. 147) may now be cut 
out, its complete length being 8 ft. The centre 
piece passing through the saddle is 3 ft. 3 in. long, 
the strap or buckling end measuring 1 ft. 6 in., and 
the remainder being for girth. If it is for a van 
harness it must be in three thicknesses along the 
centre, but the strap end will be strong enough in 
two thicknesses ; when the belly-band part is very 
light it may also be thickened a little. Place the 
belly-band buckle in the belly-band end, and if 
necessary line the chape ; then round the point at 
the strap end. Crease all along and make two 
rows on each side of the centre, bringing them to- 
gether in a point at the extremities. Strictly 
speaking, one row on each side of the belly band 
and strap will suffice, but four rows are better ; in 
the last case, crossing the two middle centre lines 
at the end of the centre part w^ll improve the 

An opening must be left in the stitching about 
1^ in. from the buckle, and two openings lower 
down, 2 in. apart, to receive three loops when the 
back-band has been completed. Stitch it about 
eight per inch, with four-cord thread. 

For finishing, use a spokeshave, and rub the 
stitches underneath to level them well ; round the 
edges w^ell towards the stitches, making the edges 
neat in appearance. Scrape it with glasspaper, 
place the buckle on the hook, and black the edges 

Van a. yd Cab Harness. 151 

and stitches ; ru.b vigorously with the rag in the 
right hand, holding each side of the back-band 
with the other. The hand should be moved briskly 
?Dackwards and forwards so as to dry and polish the 
edges well. Now pass a ball of tallow along the 
edges and again rub well with the rag, after which 
the three loops may be placed on the belly band 
and stitched from below, the reverse side to the 
other stitches. Then punch eight or nine holes in 
the strap and three in the centre part at equal 
distances from each crossing of the middle row of 
stitches, or from the point of the inner rows if the 
centre only has four rows of stitching. Leave 
about 1 ft. 6 in. in the centre without holes. 

The shaft tugs (Fig. 191, p. 147) are made by 
cutting a 1 ft. 7| in. length of leather to the same 
width as the buckles and back-band — that is, If in. 
Overlap this piece 4^ in., the overlap then being 
bent together and knocked flat in the centre. 
Through both leathers cut a hole for a buckle in 
the bend, and shave a little on the sides of the 
hole underneath where the tongue enters, so that 
the buckle will run close to the leather. 

Shave both ends, the inner very thin and the 
outer or top one moderately, cutting a little off 
each corner. Crease two rows on each side as on 
the back-band, and, having pricked the rows seven 
per inch, place the brass or nickel loop loose on the 
strap and adjust the buckle therein. Draw the two 
holes in the centre, where the buckle is placed, 
exactly opposite each other, and stitch the top 
point of the overlap along the two inner lines for 
about 2 in. through the two leathers. 

The shape being now obtained, the tug must be 
filled and thickened. This is done by cutting a 
piece of leather to fit the inside tight from one side 
of the buckle to the other, keeping the buckle in 
position while working. Cut a nick in the centre 
of each eno^ of this piece so that the tongue and 

152 Bar NESS Making. 

sides may fit close to the buckle, and then cut 
another good piece of leather to go round inside 
tight and to overlap at the top for about 1| in. 
Now shave each end and cut a groove on each side 
for about the length of the loop on the part in- 
tended for it, and overlap it on the side opposite 
the loop just below the buckle, with the outer point 
of the overlap on the top pointing towards the 
buckle and not downwards. 

If the tug needs more thickening, place another 
piece under the inside lining to reach from the 
metal loop (placed below the leather loop) round 
the bottom and about halfway up the other side, 
leaving it with its thickness at the end near the 
metal loop ; shave the other end thin. 

The metal loop must fit tight between the end 
of the piece and the leather loop. It must now be 
tacked together from the inside, the joint at the 
overlap being made firm. The lining should be of 
sole leather ; damp it well so that it v/ill fit into its 
place and be easier to stitch. Begin stitching at 
the buckle with four-cord thread and work round 
to the metal loop ; then begin at this part on the 
other side and stitch to the buckle. Continue to 
work in this way until four rows are stitched. 

Trim the edges, and black and polish them, 
paying particular attention to the part about the 

There is an opening from the metal loop to the 
buckle remaining unstitched ; this, with a groove 
cut underneath on the lower side, is for the loop, 
which must be about 2 in. wide. Having inserted 
one side for about half the width of the tug, stitch 
it with six-cord double waxed thread from the 
buckle to the metal loop, being careful to bring the 
awl out with each stitch in the centre of the groove. 
Stitch the other side as far as the buckle and make 
two or three cross stitches on each side of the 

Kix AND Cab Harness. 


If there is iiiiich imevenness on the part from 
the end of the loop to the buckle, a little filling 
may be put in the space. The loop must be longer 
than usual because the back-band is extra thick. 
Shape the loop with a thick bent loop-stick big 
enough to make plenty of room for a back-band. 
Black and finish the loop, make a pattern or check 
it if necessary, and then remove all unevenness, 
close the grooves, and trim neatly about the loop 
and buckle. Repeat the operation with the second 
tug, and then all will be ready. 

The big loops for a shaft and the hame tugs, 
etc., must always be made of firm loop leather, 

Fig. 193.— Cab Saddle Tree. 

Fig. 192. — Four-wheeled 
Cab Saddle. 

which will grow hard in finishing and retain its 
firmness and shape in spite of rain and weather. 

For the traces, trace end chains will be needed ; 
van and cab traces are stitched to the hames, being 
shortened by having ten or twelve links of a chain 
at the other end. The traces may be 4 ft. 9 in. 
long by If in., being 1 ft. 1 in. longer with a chain. 
They must be in three thicknesses, but with two 
thicknesses to go through the chain dee and hame 
ring (Fig. 171, p. 123). 

In putting the upper and low^er part together, 
place the light end of one against the heavy end 
of the other, thus levelling the trace and making it 



of equal strength. Shave the points well where 
one ends and another begins-for example, the 
lining in the hame ring and chain dee. Having 
turned the leathers down to the right length, crease 
and prick them, seven or eight per inch. Tack 
down with only the chain on and stitch the four 
rows, but not so far in the hame end as to prevent 
the hame ring being placed in position when they 
are finished. When both are stitched, trim, black, 
and polish them ; then rub down the stitches under- 
neath, and having fixed them to the hame ring, 
stitch them to it, and finish that end like the other 

F,g. 194. 

Fig. 1 9 i.— Hansom Cab Saddle. 

Rein Stops 


Figs. 195 and 19J.— 

Make two hame straps | in. wide, the top strap 
1 ft. 10 in. long, and the lower 1 ft. 4 in. Adjust 
the buckles at the strong ends and make two loops, 
reversing them as on the breeching straps ; have 
seven or eight holes in each. 

The driving reins are 1 in. wide, and the fore- 
part near the horse's head is 6 ft. long on each side. 
Turn down the chapes at the strong ends for the 
buckles, and shave the point thin ; then cut two 
billets, 1 ft. long, from a firm piece of leather. 
Shave one end and round the other, and, having cut 

Van and Cab Harness. 


two loops, edge and finish them ; then rub all and 
crease them close to the edge with a hot creaser. 

Adjust the buckles, prick the part of the billet 
to be stitched a little inside the outer crease, and 
stitch the billets in with the loop. When the loops 
are finished, make a hole in each billet far enough 
from the point to allow what is over to come 
through the loop, and cover the stitches on the 



Fig. 197. — Htmscm Cab ^ 

Make the brown hand parts 5 ft. 6 in. long, and 
narrow the light end of one part to pass through 
into a |-in. covered buckle ; then turn down the 
other point and narrow it for the buckle chape. 
Finally, prepare a narrow brown loop. Shave and 
taper the other end of the hand parts to a point, 
edge both sides below and under, and damp the 
edges with gum and water, or with water only. 

15^ Harness Making. 

Polish them well by rubbing, making them even 
everywhere ; brown paper is excellent for polishing 
either black or brown edges. 

After creasing them very near the edge with a 
screw crease, place the buckle and loop on the end 
and mark a line a little inside the outer one, about 
2\ in. or 3 in. long, on the end to be spliced on the 
fore-part. Prick it fine and stitch with a fine 
thread, pointing the stitches in the upper end to 
the same shape as the others. The hand parts can 
be obtained ready cut with buckles, and then all 
that has to be done is to shave the ends and stitch 
them to the fore-parts. 

Four-wheel cab harness can be made in the same 
way as van harness, except the saddle (Fig. 192), 
which is made exactly like a gig saddle, but is 
heavier and has brass or nickel screw studs in each 
corner of the skirts ; Fig. 193 shows the top or 

Hansom cab harness is not much different, 
though the saddle (Fig. 194) is lighter, and some 
have rollers inside the saddle so that the back- 
band may run smoothly backwards and forwards 
through the tree ; these trees are made to order. 
In Fig. 197, A indicates the noseband, b winker, c 
forehead band, e throatlash, f cheek, g rein, h 
collar, I trace, J saddle, k shaft tug, l cantle of 
saddle, m crupper, n tug strap, o bearer, p breech- 
ing, and E shaft strap. 

The hansom reins must be about 20 ft. long on 
each side, each brown hand part being about 7 ft. 
long. They are generally showy and ornamental. 
Winkers and saddle, hip straps, martingale, and 
breastplate have ornaments, the reins have ivory 
rings and stops (Figs. 195 and 19G), and there is a 
face-piece ornament on the bridle. 

Both four-wheeler and hansom harness (Fig. 
197) are larger and heavier than gig harness, except 
at the saddle. 



Awls, 21, 22 

Back Stitching, 52 
Backband Hook, Plough, 107 

, Van Harness, 15'J 

Backs, Hide, 37, 39, 40 
Ball Terret, 124 
Band, Forehead, 68 
Bands, Mill, 40 

, Nose, 63 

Basils, 40 

Beeswax, 30 

Bells and Brush, Bridle, 63 

Belly Band, Cart, 99 

Belt, Waist, 49 

Bent Awl, 21 

Bevellers, 21 

Billet, 93 

Bits, 111-116 

Black Wax, 31, 33, 45 

Black-ball. 44 

Board, Cutting, 42 

Body-belt Webs, 45 

Box Creased Loop, 57 

Loop, 57 

Strap, 49 

Spurs, 116 

Brace End Punch, 15 
Brass Face-pieces, 63 

Gear Buckles, Scotch, 65 

Hame Plates, 63 

Nails, 35 

Ornaments, 63 

■ Polishing Paste, 47 

Squares. 63 

Swing. 63 

Breaking Bit, 116 
Breeching, Cart Harness, 96 

. Van Harness, 149 

Bridle. 70 

Hides, 38 

Bridoon Bits, 112, 114, 115 
Bronzing for Leather, 48 
Brown Gear Hides, 40 
• — — Harness Hides, 40 

Shoulders, 39 

Stain, 46 

Wax, 45 

Brush and Bells for Bridle, 6i 
Buckle Tongue Punch, 14 
Buckles. 63, 118-126 
Buff Hides, White, 41 

Buff Middling, White Bleached, 

Bull Hides, Enamelled, 41 
Burgess's Buckles, 124 
Burnisher, 44 
Butts, Black Strap, 38 
Buxton Bit, 115 

Cab, Hansom, Harness for, 156 

Harness, 156 

Saddle, 156 

Tree, 156 

Calf-skins, 40 

Cart Belly Band, 99 

Collars, 75-85 

Harness, 62-74 

Saddles, 86-100 

, Panel of, 86 

, Tree for, 86 

Cement, Leather, 47 
Chain Front, 141 
Chains, 125 

, Hip-strap, 105 

Chapes. 66 

Chased Buckles. 123 

Chatham Buckles, 125 

Cli6ckGrs 20 

Cheek Curb Bit, Globe, 114 

Chin Strap. 71 

Clamp or Clams, 24 

Clip, Hame, 123 

Clout Nails, 34 

Coacli Hides, 41 

Collar, Cart, 75-85 

, Lining, 78 

, Pipe, 77 

Rod, Iron, 27 

Side-piece, 83 

- — , Van, 128 
Coloured Flocks, 36 
Couplings for Plough Gear, 110 
Compasses, 21 

, Race, 21 

Composition, Harness, 48 
Corner-piece, Nose-band, 69 
Cow-backs, Japanned, 38 
Cow^-hides, Enamelled, 41 
Creased Loop, Box, 57 
Creases, 19 
Crew Punch, 14 
Crupper, Cart Harness, 93 

Dock. 143 


I/akx£Ss Making. 

Crupper, Van Harness, 145 
Curb Bit, 115 

, Globe Cheek, 114 

Cut Tacks, 34 
Cutter, Washer, 15 
Cutting Board, 42 
Gauge, 10, 11 

Pliers, 27 

Cutting up Hides, 42 

Dees, Breeching, 148 
Diaper Webs, 45 
Dock, 146 

Double-rein Hides, 39 
Dress Spurs, 116 
Drummed Flocks, 36 
Dye, 35 
Dyeing, Iron Liquor for, 45 

Ear-piece, 69 
Edge Trimmers, 12 
Enamelled Hides, 41 
Exercising Bit, 116 

Face-pieces, Biass, 63 

Farm Harness, Oil for, 47 

Felt, 36 

Files, 29 

Flap Hides, Japanned, 38 

Flocks, 36 

Flour Paste, 45 

Fly-terrets, 124 

Foot-rule, 21 

Fore Gear and Leader Harness, 

Forehead Band, 68 

• , Van Harness, 141 

Forewale, 76 
I'ork, straining, 29 
Four-wheel Cab Harness, 156 

Gauge, Cutting, 10, 11 

. Plough, 11 

Gear Buckles, Scotch, 63 

Hides, Brown, 40 

, Plough. 107-110 

, Shaft. 62 

Gig Curb Bit. 115 

Harness, 127 

Snaffle, 113 

Gilding Leather, 43 
Girth, Cart Saddle, 91 

Chape Punch, 15 

, Van Harness, 137 

Webs, 44 

Globe Cheek Curb Bit, 114 

Hackney Bits, 112, 113 
Half-moon Scalloping Irons, 16 
Hame Clip, 125 
Knobs, Brass, 63 

Plates, Brass, 63 

Straps, 93 

Tug Loops, 153 

Hames, 124-125 
Hammer, 17 
Hand Knife, 10 

Punch, 15 

Hand-iron, 23 

Hansom Cab Harness, 156 

Saddle, 156 

Hard Wax, 31 
Harness, Cab, 127-156 

, Cart, 62-74 

— — Composition, 46 

, Fore Gear and Leader, 


, Gig, 127 

Jet, 47 

Oil, 47 

, Plough, 107-110 

, Van, 127-156 

• Waterproof Paste, 47 

Head Knife, 10 

Strap, 73 

Head-collar Rein Backs, 39 
Hearts, Brass, 63 

Hemp, 30, 33 
Hides, 37-42 

, Cutting up, 42 

Hind Tugs, 97 

Hip-strap Chains, 103 

Hog-skins, 40 

Hook, Plough Back-band, 107 

•, Wire, 61 

Horse Hides, Japanned, 38 
Horsehair, Curled, 36 
Housing, Cart Saddle, 92 

Iron Collar Rod, 27 

, Hand, 23 

Liquor for Dyeing, 45 

— , Palm, 25 

-, Pricking, 18 

, Scalloping, 16 

Seat, 27 

Jambles Plates, 63 
Japanned Hides, 33 
Nails, 34 

Welting Seals, 38 

Winker Hides, 38 

Jet, Harness, 47 

Knives, 10 

Lace Needles, 53 
Ladies' Horse Bits, 112 
Spurs, 116 

Stirrups, 117 

Lash, Throat, 73 

Lead Piece for Punching, 16 
Leader Harness, Fore Gear and, 

Leather, 37-42 

, Bronzing. 48 

■ Cement, 47 

, Fancy, 41 



Leather Preserver, 47 

, Patent, Reviver for, 46 

. Testing Quality of, 41 

Lignum-vitfe Round Mallet, 17 

Linen Threads, 30 

Lining Cart Saddle Panel, 87 

— Collar, 78 

Winkers, 127 

Liverpool Bits, 114 
Loin Straps, 93 
Loop, Box, 57 
, Creasing, 59 

Leather, Dyeing, 35 

, Pipe, 57 

, Running, 49, 57 

Looping, 57-61 
Loop-sticks, 28 

Machine, Slitting, 11 
Mallets, 17 
Materials, 50-48 
Melbourne Buckles, 124 
Middling, White Bleached Buff, 

Mill Bands, 40 

Nail-claw, 27 
Nails, 34, 35 
Needles, 22 

, Threading, 51 

Nipple, Hand Punch, 16 

Nose-band, 63 

, Van Harness, 140 

Octagons, Brass, 63 

Officers' Spurs, 116 

Oil, Harness, 47 

Oval Punch, 13, 14 

Ovals, Brass. 63 

Ox Hides, Enamelled, 41 

Palm-iron, 23 

Panel, Cart Saddle, 86 

, Van Saddle, 134 

Paring Knife, 10 
Paste, 45, 127 

, Brass Polisliing, 47 

, Harness, 47 

Patent Leatlier Reviver, 46 
Pelham Bits, 112 

Snaffles, 113 

Pincers, 27 
Pipe' Collar, 77 

Loop, 57 

Plate Powder, 47 

Pliers, 27 

Plough Back-band Hook, 107 

Gear Couplings, 110 

- — - Harness, 107-110 
Plough-gauge, 11 
Pocket-book or Purse Hides, 40 
Polishing Paste, Brass, 47 
Powder, Plate, 47 

Preserver, Leather, 47 

Prickers, Wheel, 19 

Pricking-iron, 18 

Punches, 13-16 

Punching, Lead Piece for, 16 

Purse or Pocket-book Hides, 40 

Race Compasses, 21 

Girth Webs, 44 

Rasps, 29 

Rein, 73 

Backs, Head-collar, 39 

Hides and Backs, 38 

Stops, 156 

Reins, Van Harness, 154 

Reviver, Patent Leather, 46 

Riding Bits, 112 

— - Saddles, Stain for, 46 

Rivets, 126 

Roller Buckles, 12tj 

Girth Webs, 44 

Rosette Punches, 16 
Round Awl, 22 

File, 29 

Knife, 10 

Punch, 13, 14 

Round-headed Nails, 34 
Rubber, 23 
Running Loop, 50, 57 
Russet Brown Stain, 46 

Saddle, Cab, 156 
, Cart, 86-100 

Girths, 91 

, Hansom Cab, 156 

Stain, 46 

Straps, 91 

, Van, 130 

Safety Slipper Stirrup, 117 
Scalloping Irons, 16 
Scotch Brass Gear Buckles, 63 
Screw Crease, 19 

Race, 19 

Spurs, 116 

Seals, Japannei Welting, 38 
Seal-skins, 41 
Seat Awl, 22 

Iron, 27 

Sewing Awl, 21 
Shaft Gear, 62 

Tug Buckles, 124 

Tugs, Clamp for Sewing, 24 

— , Van, 151 

Sheep-skins, 40 
Sheep's Wool, 36 
Shoulders, Hide, 38-40 
Show or Stallion Bit, 116 
Silk Threads, 30 
Single Crease, 19 
Skins, Calf, 40 

, Hog, 40 

, Seal, 41 

, Sheep, 40 

. White. 53 


Harxe'S Making, 

Skirt Hides and Backs, 40 
Slipper Stirrups, 117 
Slitting Machine, 11 
Snaffles, 113, 116 
Spokeshave, 11 
Spur Shoulders, Black, 38 
Spurs, 116 
Square File, 29 
Squares, Brass, 63 
Slain, 35 

Stains, Various, 46 
Stallion or Show Bit, 116 
Stars, Brass, 63 
Steel Seat-iron, 27 
Stirrup Hides, 40 
Stirrups, 117 
Stitching Awls, 21 

, Back. 52 

, Simple Exercises in, 49-56 

with White Lace. 52 

Straight Scalloping Irons, 16 
Straining Fork, 29 

Webs, 45 

Strap, Box, 49 

Butts, Black. 38 

for Cart Saddle, 91 

, Chin, 71 

, Hajne. 99 

, Head, 73 

, Loin, 98 

Winker, 72 

Swing, Brass, 63 
Swivelled Bridoon Bit, 115 
Swivels, 124 

Tacks, Cut, 34 

Tallow. 31 

Team Harness, Oil for, 47 

Terrets, 124 

Threads, 30, 33, 75 

Throat Lash, 73 

Tools, 10-29 

Trace Backs, 37 

, Van Harness, 153 

Tree, Cab Saddle, 156 

Tree, Cart Saddle, 86 

, Van Saddle, 132 

Trimmers, Edge, 12 
Trousers Spurs, 116 
Tugs, Hind, 97 

Van Collar, 123 

Harness, 127-155 

Saddle, 130 

Vandj^ke Scalloping Irons, 
Vice, 27 


Waist-belt. 49-56 
Washer Cutter, 13 
Waterproof Harness Paste, 47 
Wax, Black, 31, 33, 45 

, Brown, 45 

, Hard, 31 

, White. 30 

V»>axed Threads, 30 
W^ebs, 44, 45 

Welting Seals, Japanned, 38 
West End Buckles, 122-124 
Weymouth Bits, 112 
Wheel Prickers, 19 
White Bleached Buff Middling, 

Buff Hides, 41 

Flocks, 36 

Hemp Thread, 33 

Lace, Stitching with, 52 

Skin, 53 

W^ax, 30 

Wilson Snaffle, 113 
Winker Hides, 38 
, Japanned, 33 

Straps, 72 

, Van Harness, 142 

Winkers, 64, 127 
Wire Hook, 61 

Nails. 34 

Wrench, 27 

Yellow Hemp Thread, 33 

Slain, 43 

Tufts University 
200 Vy'estboro Road 
North Grafton, ^AA 01 536 



Technical Instruction. 

Important New Series of Practical Volumes. 
Edited by PAUL N. HASLICK. 

With Numerous Illustrations in the Text. Each Book 

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Practical Draughtsmen's Work. With 226 Illus- 

Contents. — Drawing Boards. Paper and Mounting. Draughtsmen's Instru- 
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Projection. Back Lining Drawings. Drawing to Scale and Preparing Maps. 
Colouring Drawings. Making Drawings. Index. 

Practical Staircase Joinery. With 215 Illus- 

Contents. — Introduction : Explanation of Terms. Simple Form of Staircase. 
House Stringed Stair. Measuring, Planning, and Setting Out. Two-flight 
Staircase. Staircase with Winders at Bottom. Staircase with Wmders at Top 
and Bottom. Staircase with Half-i-pace of Winders. Staircase Over an Oblique 
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Open String Staircase with Bull-nose Step. Geometrical Staircases. Winding 
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Practical Metal Plate Work. With 247 Illus- 

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Tools and Appliances Used in Metal Plate Work. Soldering and Brazing. 
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Practical Gas Fitting. With 120 Illustrations. 

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in Workshops and Theatres. Gas-Fitting for Festival Illuminations. Gas 
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Practical Graining and Marbling. With 76 


C<7«^^«/^.— Introduction, Tools, and Mechanical Aids. Graining Grounds 
and Graining Colours. Oak Graining in Oil. Oak Graining in Spirit and 
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Practical Plumbers' Work. With Numerous 

CASSELL & COMPANY, Limited, La Belle Sauvage, London, E.C 



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Edited by PAUL N. HASLUCK, Editor of "WORK." 
Illustrated. Cloth, is. ; or Post Free, is. 2d. each. 

House Decoration, Comprising Whitewashing, Paperhanging, 

Painting, etc With 79 Engravings a nd Diagrams. 
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Boot Making and Mending. Including Repairing, Lasting, and 

Finishing. With 179 Engravings and Diagrams. 
C<»Ki*n«.— Repairing Heels and Hali-Soling. Patching Boots and Shoes. Re- Welting and 
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Knifinsf and Finishing. Making Riveted Boots emd Shoes. Index. 

How to Write Signs, Tickets, and Posters. With 170 Engravings 

and Diaigrains. 
Cements. — The Formation of Letters, Stops, and Numerals. The Sign-writer's Outfit. 
Making Signboards and Laving Ground Colours. The Simpler Forms of Lettering. Shaded 
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with Gold, etc. Index. 

Wood Finisning. Comprising Staining, Varnishing, and Polishing. 

With Enyrav.ngs and Diagrams. 
Contents. — Processes of Finishing Wood. Processes of Staining Wood. French Polishing. 
Fillers for Wood and Filling In. Bodying In and Spiriting Off. Glazing and Wax Finishing, 
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Treatment 01 Floors. Stains. Processes of Varnishing Wood. Varnishes. Re-polishmg 
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Dynamos and :Electric Motors. With 142 Engravings and Diagrams. 

con/(;««. -Introduction. Siemens Dynanio. Gramme Dynamo. Manchester Dynamo. 
Simplex Dynamo". Calculating the Size and Amount 01 Wire tor Small Dynamos. Ailments 
0< Small Dynamo Electric Machines: their Causes and Cures. Small Electro-Motors Without 
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Decorative Designs of All Ages and for All Purposes. With 

»77 Engravings and Diagramis. 
Contents.— Savage Ornament. Egyptian Ornament. Assyrian Ornament Greek Orna- 
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Chinese Ornament Persian Ornament Indian Ornament Japanese Ornament Index. 

Mounting and Framing Piciures. With 240 Engravings, etc. 

Contents.- Making Picture Frames. Notes on Art Frames. Picture Frame Cramps. 
Making Oxford Frames. Gilding Picture Frames. Methods of Mounting Pictures. Making 
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Smiths' Work. With 211 Engravings and Diagrams. 

CoM/<rn/j.— Forges and Appliances. Hand Tools. Drawir.g Down and Upsetting. Welding 
and launching. Conditions of Work: Principles of Formation. Bending and Ring Making. 
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Glass Working by Heat and Abrasion. With 300 Engravings and 

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and Flasks. Jointing Tubes to Bulbs forming Thistle Funnels, etc. Blowing and Etching 
Glass hancy Arncles : Embossing and Gilding Flat Surfaces. Utilising Broken Glass Appara- 
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Building Model Boats. With 168 Engravings and Diagrams. 

Coficenrs.— Building Model Yachts, Rigging and Sailing Model V.-xchts. Making and 
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Electric Bells, How to Make and Fit Them. With 163 Engravings 

and Diagrams. 
Con.'€>iu.— The Electric Current and the Laws that Govern it Current Conductors used 
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[Continued on next page. 
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Tazidemiy. With 108 Engravitigs and Diagrams. 

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Mounting Aniniais' Homed Heads : Polishing and Mounting Horns. Skinning, Stuffing, and 
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Tailoring. With 180 Engravings and Diajsn-ams. 

Cci'i.c««.— Tailors' Requisites and Methods of Stitching. Simple Repairs and Pressing. 
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Photographic Cameras and Accessories. Comprising How to 
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Optical Lanterns. Comprising The Construction and Management 
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Engraving Metals. With 117 Illustrations. 

contents. — Introduction and Terms ixsed. Engravers' Tools and their Uses. Elementary 
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Bent Ironwork. Including Elementary Art Metal Work. With 
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C<w/««£r.— Tools and Materials. Bending and Working-Strip Iron. Simple Exercises in 
Bent Iron. Floral Ornaments for Bent Ironwork— Candlesticks, Hall Lanterns, Screens, 
Grilles, etc.. Table Lamps, Suspended Lamps and Flower Bowls, Photograph Frames, 
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Photography. With 70 Engravings and Diagrams. 

Contents. — The Camera and its Accessories. The Studio and Darkroom. Plates. Ex. 
posure. Developing and Fixing Negatives. Intensificarion and Reduction of Negatives. 
Portraiture and Picture Composition. Flashlight Photography. Retouching Negatives, 
Processes of Printing from Negatives. Mounting and Finishing Prints. Copymg and 
Enlarging. Stereoscopic Photography. Ferrotype Photography, Index. 

Upholstery. With 162 Engravings and Diagrams. 

Con ents.— Upholster rs' Materials. Upholsterers' Tool-. Webbing, Sprirgirg, Stuffing, 
and Tuitiiig. Maki. g Seat Cushions and Squabs. Upholstering an Easy Ch-ir. Upholster- 
ing Couches :^nd Sofas UphoKtering Footstools, Fenderett' s, etc. Miscellant^ons Up- 
holstery Mattress Making and Repairing Ren vati- g and Repairing Upholstered 
Furniture. C^irpet Planning aid Laying. Linoleum Laying. Fancy Upholstery. Iiide.x. 

Leather Working. With 152 Engravings and Diagrams. 

Ccm'enis —Qualities and Varieties of Leather. Strap Cutting and flaking. Letter Cases 
and Writing Pads. Hair Brush and Collar Cases. Hat Cases. Banjo and Mandoline Cases. 
Bags. Portmanteaux and Travelling Trunk;. Knaps icks and Satchels. Leather Orna- 
mentition. Footballs. Dyeing Leather. Miscellaneous Examples of Leather Work. Index. 

Saddlery. With qg Engravings and Diagrams, 

C£>«^d'««.— Gentleman's Riding Saddle. Panel for Gentleman's Saddle. Ladies' Side Children's Saddles or Pilches. Saddle Cruppers, Breastplates, and other Acces- 
sories. Riding Bridles. Breakirg-down Tackle. Head Collars. Hurse Clothing. Knee-caps 
and Miscellaneous Articles. Repairing H Tiiess and Sadalery. Re-lining Collars and Saddles. 
Riding ana Driving Whips. Superior Set of Gig Harness. 

Harness Making. With 197 E-gravings and Diagrams. 

Cc;;ii'!;«;j. — Harness-makers' Tools. Harne=s-makf rs' Materials. Simple Exercises in 
Stitching. Looping. Cart Harness. Cart -c liars. Cart Saddles. Fore Gear and Leader 
Harness. Plough Harness. Bits, Spurs, Stirrups, and Harness Furniture. Van and Cab 

Other Volumes in Preparation. 

CASSELL & COMPANY, Limited, La Belle Sauvage, London, B.C. 
Covers.] . HI